Bioreactor is a system in which a biological conversion is run in to a biologically active environment. The bioreactors are mechanical vessels in which microbes are cultivated in a controlled manner and/or materials are converted or transformed via specific reactions. The bioreactor's environmental conditions like gas (i.e., air, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide) flow rates, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen levels, and agitation speed/circulation rate need to be closely monitored and controlled. Most industrial bioreactor manufacturers use vessels, sensors and a control system networked together.

Key factors in bioreactor design and operation: The effective bioreactor is to control, contain and positively influence the biological reaction. The macrokinetic system includes microbial growth and metabolite production. Microbes can include bacteria, yeast, fungi, and animal, plant, fish and insect cells, as well as other biological materials. The other area of major importance in bioreactor design involves the bio-reaction parameters, including: Controlled temperature, Optimum pH, Sufficient substrate (usually a carbon source), Water availability, Salts for nutrition, Vitamins, Oxygen (for aerobic processes), Gas evolution and Product and byproduct removal.
The function of the bioreactor is to provide a suitable environment in which an organism can efficiently produce a target product. The target product might be Cell biomass, Metabolite, and Bioconversion Product. The performance of any Bioreactor depends on the following key factors: Agitation rate, Oxygen transfer, pH, Temperature and Foam production.

The design and mode of operation of a Bioreactor mainly depends on the production organism, the optimal operating condition required for target product formation, product value and scale of production. The design also takes into consideration the capital investment and running cost.

Few Significant considerations should be taken while designing a bioreactor:
• Process control will be possible over reasonable ranges of process variables.
• Operation should be reliable
• Operation should be contamination free
However, the general requirements of the bioreactor are as follows:
• The design and construction of biochemical reactors must preclude foreign contamination (sterility).
• Optimal mixing with low, uniform shear
• Adequate mass transfer (oxygen)
• Clearly defined flow conditions
• Feeding of substrate with prevention of under or overdosing
• Suspension of solids
• Gentle heat transfer
• Compliance with design requirements such as: ability to be sterilized; simple construction; simple measuring, scaleup; flexibility; long term stability etc.

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Dr. Kirti Rani Sharma,
Assistant Professor (II),
Amity Institute of Biotechnology,
Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida
Sec-125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303 (UP), India.
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