Polymer Production by Bacterial Strains
Authors: Rajni Singh and Swati Tyagi


Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are high-molecular-weight polymers that constitute sugar residues. Numerous microscopic organisms, yeasts, growths and algal cells possess an ability to synthesize and excrete exopolysaccharide. Microbial exopolysaccharides have found an extensive variety of utilizations in the food, the pharmaceutical and different enterprises, because of their novel structure and physical properties. Some of these applications include their use as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, coagulants, lubricants, film formers, thickening and suspending agents. Pharmaceutical (1). Although few microbial EPSs like xanthan, sphingans, cellulose etc. gain commercial importance, developed the interest among researchers to isolate novel EPS from bacteria with improved properties. The production largely depends on the substrate composition and environmental conditions. Thus, to achieve the maximum yield of EPS optimization of fermentation process is required.

MORPHOLOGIC AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDE

Layers of surface-related covalently bound polysaccharides, anatomically situated as the peripheral covering of microscopic organisms' cells are alluded to as capsule. They show the mucoid appearance to bacterial colonies grown on agar media. The nature and creation of capsular polysaccharides is particularly strain subordinate [2]. Bacterial polysaccharides synthesized extracellularly and secreted the secretion into the external environment or are synthesized extracellularly by cell wall-anchored enzymes may be referred to as exopolysaccharides. The chemical composition, exopolysaccharides may be looked at based on monomer composition and as such; homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides are the two groups recognized [3]. Homopolysaccharides contain only one type of monomer units while heteropolysaccharides is composed of repeating units, varying in size from disaccharides to heptasaccharides.

IMPORTANT POLYSACCHARIDE FROM MARINE BACTERIA


Marine microbes offer incredible differences of polysaccharides which could assume a vital part in biotechnology and industry and also in future advancement of cell treatment and regenerative prescription among others applications. Spirulina has been utilized as pharmaceutical added substances and for nutritive purposes with no danger to wellbeing. Spirulina additionally have antiflammatory properties and other restorative capacities [4].

APPLICATIONS OF BACTERIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE

Advance utilization of the bacterial exopolysaccharides in pharmaceutical and biotechnology have seen utilizations to incorporate bacterial alginate in cell microencapsulation, for example, microsphere vectors for medication conveyance, making dental impressions, as a dynamic fixing in spongy dressings, and against reflux treatments [5]. Likewise, dextran, delivered by Leuconostoc mesenteriodes, has been utilized to set one up of the best plasma substitutes for application in stun and the loss of blood. In this manner, sulphated types of alginate have been thought to serve as a substitute with upgraded movement. Xanthan gum secreted by Xanthomonas campestris that have broad industrial application. Modern applications are expansive that incorporate ranges, for example, in nourishments, toiletries, oil recuperation, beauty care products and as water-based paints among other. Xanthan gum shows the Superior rheological properties that allow it to be used as rheological control agent in aqueous systems and as stabilizer for emulsions and suspensions. In the agriculture sector, the flow ability in fungicides, herbicides, and bug sprays has been enhanced by the expansion of xanthan. Pesticide cling and permanence has also been noted to improve due to rheological properties of xanthan. Xanthan gum as it is very ecofriendly. Similarly, the petroleum industry utilizes xanthan gum as a part of oil penetrating, cracking and pipeline cleaning and because of its phenomenal similarity with salt and imperviousness to warm corruption; it is likewise valuable as an added substance in boring liquids.

FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR BACTERIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE

Modern use of bacterial EPS is restricted because of high creation expense and recuperation process. So have to be explored the higher EPS producing bacteria to resolve the cost related problem. Bacterial EPS application in the area of industry (textile, dairy and cosmetics), health (medicine and pharmaceuticals) and in environment( remediation, flocculation), its application in flocculation process will be significant in the health promotion and ecofriendly usage in municipal and in waste water treatment process. The flocculation of suspended particles in water treatment plants we utilize the inorganic salts of aluminum, for example, aluminum sulfate and polyaluminium chloride. They make the adverse effect on the human health. Microbial EPS is the great alternative of these flocculating agents. It is the ecofriendly approach.

CONCLUSION


Recent development is suggestive of potential applications of these polymers for human usage; medicine, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, dairy products and other forms of industrial and environmental aspects. Production cost is the limiting factor of the application of the EPS at industrial level. Search for the high EPS strain in an ongoing process, while improving the fermentation conditions, biotechnological tools and as well as exploring the cheap fermentation substrates for their production.

References:

1. Freitas F, Alves VD, Reis MA (2011) Advances in bacterial exopolysaccharides: from production to Biotechnological applications. Trends Biotechnol 29:388-398.
2. Imeson A (2010) Food stabilisers thickening and gelling agents. Wiley-Blackwell (ed) 10-343.
3. Shah N, Prajapati JB (2013) Effect of carbon dioxide on sensory attributes, physico-chemical parameters and viability of Probiotic L. helveticus MTCC 5463 in fermented milk. J Food Sci Technol.
4. Cerning J, Marshall VME (1999) Exopolysaccharides produced by the dairy lactic acid bacteria. Recent Research Developments inMicrobiology 3: 195-209.
5. Degeest B, Vaningelgem F, De Vuyst L (2001) Microbial physiology, fermentation kinetics, and process engineering of heteropolysaccharide production by lactic acid bacteria. Int Dairy J11:747-757.


About Author / Additional Info:
I am working as Additional Director and Head in Amity Institute of Microbial Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India. I have 13 patents, executed 6 different projects and authored, co-authored or presented over 48 scientific papers, articles, book and chapters and received different grants from Govt. organization to present paper at different international platforms.