Biotechnology and Biofuels:
Petrol, Diesel and other similar energy sources are limited and will come to an end one day. The reason is that they are non-renewable source of energy. But biotechnology is always changing the limitations in to plenty. Biofuel, which is a very useful energy source. This is produced form biomass. Biomass is waste generated or its fractions generated from either domestic or industrial activities containing bio-molecules. Also it can be said as the products which are degradable by microorganisms as well as other biological activities. This biomass can be obtained from various sources like Industrial waste , Agricultural waste, domestic wastes etc. Biofuel are in the form of biomethanol, biodiesel, bioethanol etc.
Fermentation is the activity which is taking place in any available substrate for enzymes that are present in various bacteria. Fermentation of carbohydrates or sugars results in production of alcohol may be ethanol, methanol. The source of carbohydrates here can be wood waste, sugar cane, sweet sorghum, sugar beet etc. Also from starch, the biofuel can be produced. Cellulose is major source for biofuel production.
Cellulose is a complex sugar present is plants. This is broken down in to simpler form with the help of bacterial enzymes called as cellulase. Cellulase act on cellulose and convert it in to simpler form and further breakdown of cellulose sugar results in production of alcohols and byproducts like glycerol. These forms of alcohols are biofuels. Biodiesel is actually the source of energy and is promising as a replacement for diesels and even pertrols.
With the help of transesterification , in which raw material is vegetable oils , animal oil , or grasses which are recycled. Biodiesel is very important for today's modern world as this does not pollute the environment after its combustion. This can be used in vehicles and various engines as it is eco-friendly. This can result in carbon credits for any organization or any firm producing the same. Biotechnology applications in the biofuel production at large scale is done .This includes, enzymes production in required quantity.
For various catalysis reactions in the biofuel or biodiesel production. These enzymes include saccharolytic enzymes and hydrolysis of sugars in various biomasses. The genetically modified bacteria are utilized in the production of these required enzymes in bulk and further it helps in breakdown of carbohydrates. The genes which are responsible for enzyme secretions in microorganisms are extracted and in suitable host they can be added resulting in production of require enzymes in required quantity.
The metabolic activities of microorganisms are directed towards the desired activities with the help of biotechnology resulting in production of said biofuel. When it is done at larger scale, it is also economic as well as time saving.
It is always reminded to us that, use petrol, diesels etc as much as it is required or near your requirements if you wish that tomorrow our next generations should also know what is petrol and what is diesel. This is because these are non-renewable energy source and are produced with the hundreds of years of micro activities on biowaste or bio degradable wastes. These are the results of fossils which dump hundred, thousands of years ago in the earth. But today the world can have the option of biofuels or biodiesels with the help of biotechnology only. Biotechnology had given it commercial value and also is helping our only earth which has the life by supporting environment ecological balance with such non-pollution biofuels.
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