Human genome project has enabled the researchers and scientists to apply the achieved information in various fields of biology. Scientists have estimated that within the human population, chromosomes differ by 0.1%. These differences can give the better understanding about the discovery of hereditary diseases and other diseases which occur in humans due to mutations like cancers. Healthcare has already applied human genome project in discovering many useful strategies. Scientists are able to clone the genes which are responsible for causing, retinoblastoma, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and neurofibromatosis. The human genome project has also been helpful in determining the genes which are associated with many types of cancers such as colon cancer, fragile-X syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. Determination of the genes which cause diabetes has also been possible due to the mapping of the human genome. Following areas of science have taken advantage of the human genome project. For example,

Molecular Medicine:-
Human genome project has made it easy for the researchers and doctors to look deeply into the causes of the disease other than symptoms. New techniques in genetics are being developed and some are already there which make quick diagnosis of the disease and doctors can easily prescribe medicines according to the genetic defects. There are certain tests which base on the DNA and give quick diagnosis of the disease. Gene therapy is a technique which is being developed for the treatment of genetic diseases in the sense that it will replace the defected genes with the healthy ones.

Scientists are also able to determine the genetic defects at the embryonic level of child development and can describe that what type of genetic disease the child will acquire. Similarly, therapeutic drugs have been made and efficient drug delivery methods have created which target only those cells which are diseased and healthy cells remain unaffected. Certain immunotherapy techniques have been created to make the treatment of diseases more efficient.

Biotechnology also made use of human genome project in the development of different therapies for example gene therapy and stem cell therapies to treat diseases. Similarly function of different genes has also been determined by the mapping of human genome. By mapping the genome of animals can be helpful in increasing the production of healthy livestock.

Waste Control and Environmental Cleanup:-
Human genome project has provided courage to the scientists and they became able to map the genomes of many microorganisms like bacteria and some animals. It enabled the scientists to use certain genes and the plants which can be helpful in the good yield of plants and also increase the nutritional value. Some genes of the microorganisms are used in the plants t make them drought and insecticide resistant and as a result plants can grow in harsh environments also. Bacteria are useful in cleaning the environmental pollutants by degrading the chemicals and converting them into energy sources. Toxic wastes have also been reduced from the earth which makes the environment polluted.

Energy Source:-
Biotechnology has become more applicable after the mapping and sequencing of human genome. Now it can be helpful in improving the energy resources based on fossils. World is need of more energy sources today and biotechnology can be of great help by providing ways and methods for the bioconversion of raw materials. If the genome of the microorganisms which are concerned with the methane production is mapped, it can be helpful in the inexpensive production of fuel grade methane. Some bacterial species are also helpful in degrading the dead material and as a result energy produces.

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