Cloning is a very interesting technique of biotechnology, because this technique is able to create organism just like its parents. It means that genetic traits of the off spring match with its parents. Cloning has now made it possible to create human clones today and it is unbelievable that these clones are moving in this world with good health and characteristics. First ever experiment of cloning was performed on a sheep and the sheep which was produced named Dolly sheep. This sheep has the characteristics and genetic makeup just like its parent. It was the greatest success of the field of biotechnology. Though dolly sheep did not live long and died at the age of six because of suffering from various diseases like arthritis and lung cancer.
Ethical Issues of Human Cloning:-
Cloning like other fields of biotechnology has some ethical issues also. But when the endangered species of some animals were cloned, it was considered as the positive thing and was also liked ethically. Still there are issues concerning cloning. Some people oppose this technique because they think that it affects the privacy and rights of the person and they do not feel the need of making another organism just like the existing one. Some people do not consider cloning safe for the birth of the baby. They say that baby should be produced by natural ways and should have diversity of genes not like his parents. It is also considered unsafe because sometimes, for cloning purpose, egg is taken from another woman; sperm is taken from another man not the father of the child and is fertilized in the laboratory. Then this fertilized embryo is inserted into the second mother not the one from whom egg was taken. This way when the child is born, it will be uncertain that who are the real father and mother of the child. The identity of the child will remain unknown.
Some people also oppose therapeutic cloning, because in this technique stem cells are taken and their nucleus is removed. This nucleus is inserted in the egg which is also without nucleus. When the embryo develops, some cells are taken from it and are cultured. In this way embryonic stem cells are cultured which are very much identical to the individual whose nucleus of the somatic cells was used. It is also considered unsafe because it is possible that may be the cells do not match the required person or the immune system of the person does not accept that particular changes in the cells. Rights of early stage embryo can also be despoiled through this technique.
Ethical Issues of Animal Cloning:-
There are some ethical issues about the livestock and plants also. For example, if an animal is cloned, it should be kept in mind that health of the animal should not be affected. These animals should give benefit to the producers. Otherwise there is no use of cloning of any animal if it is not of any use. Some people are against cloning of the animals because they think that may be the clone would have been taken from the animals which are near extinction. It is possible that those animals might be suffering from some diseases that is why they are endangered. Now the point is that if cells of that animal are used, there are chances that the new born will be effected with the same disease. So it is considered unsafe.
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