Microorganisms are the important part of human life as they are helpful in degrading the dead material, help in cleaning the environment and waste water. They also help to increase the soil fertility so that the plants can grow in a healthy environment. In human life, they have been helpful in the food industry for example for baking, food and brewing. Scientists have been succeeded in mapping the whole genome of many microorganisms that is why now they have broader applications in the environment, industry and energy. By knowing the whole sequence of genome of microorganisms, it has been possible for the scientists to observe them deeply and can see that the structure of their genes which allow them to survive in a very extreme hot or cold environment.
Change in the Climate:-
In many developed countries, fossils are being used to produce energy in the form of petrol, electricity and other forms and as a result harmful impact is placed on the environment in the form of pollution. Carbon dioxide has increased in the environment due to which there is danger for both humans and animals' survival.
Scientists can control the carbon level in the atmosphere by knowing the genetic makeup of those organisms for which carbon is an important component. There is specie of bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palutris, which have the ability to convert the sunlight into biomass by absorbing the carbon dioxide from the environment. Their habitat is usually soils or water. These microorganisms have the ability to digest the aromatic compounds and recycle them into polymers which are the most important components of the earth. They are considered to be the source of producing hydrogen gas and they can even convert nitrogen gas into ammonia. They have the ability to reside in the environment with or without the oxygen. If there is no oxygen in the environment, them they can get their energy from the sunlight by the process of photosynthesis.
Microorganisms also help in cleaning the waste which is in the form of radiations or toxic materials. Deinococcus radiodurans are considered to be the toughest bacterial specie on the planet earth because they have developed resistance against radiations in their genetic makeup. This specie can live even in those locations which are very tough like drought conditions, lack of nutrients and in those environments which contain extreme radiations that even a human being cannot survive in such environment. This is the reason they are being used to eradicate the radiations and toxicity form the waste materials and recycle them into useful components.
Source of Energy:-
Chlorobium tepidum are considered to produce energy from the sunlight. Scientists are observing their genome to see the makeup of their genes. These microorganisms have the ability of photosynthesis but do not produce oxygen as a result. They are able to recycle nutrients and fix the atmospheric nitrogen.
Enterococcus faecalis are the specie of bacteria which cause infections in the hospital patients. When the scientists studied the genome of this bacterium, they discovered that some of the genes are able to create resistance against antibiotics. This may result in the evolution of harmful bacteria if they showed their virulent properties. The information about the antibiotic resistant genes in bacteria may give the opportunity to the scientists to use them as biomarkers for the detection of infections and they may be able to create precautionary measures against these microbes.
Microbes have many applications in biotechnology industry. They can be used in the food industry to make butter, yogurt, bread and beer. Similarly, in agriculture microorganisms are not only used to increase the soil fertility but also help to kill other harmful microorganisms. Bacteria are mostly used in the Biotechnology field. It can be used as the source of drug delivery. Scientists develop plasmids to insert healthy genes in place of damaged genes and bacteria are used for this purpose.
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