Proteomics is a new field of genetics which is used to study all the proteins which are expressed by the human genome. All the proteins which are present in the body are analyzed and their physiological functions are observed through proteomics. In 1994, scientists brought all the proteins of cells and tissues and put them at one place and named it proteome. Proteome is a very complex compound and it varies on the basis of cell activity, metabolism and diseases. It is because every individual's body undergoes different cell activity and also not all individuals suffer from same disease at the same time. Human body contains 110 million proteins in them but there few proteins which are functionally known, others are still have to discover functionally.
For the treatment of cancer, scientists felt the need of developing proteomics, because to diagnose the cancer, protein arrays are used which are extracted either from the cells of cancer or taken from the blood of the patient.
Applications of proteomics:-
Proteomics and Tumor Metastasis:-
Metastasis is the condition in the disease of cancer in which cancer spreads from one organ to the other and it is the major cause of death in people. Though real process of metastasis is still unknown to the scientists but if the expression of the proteins is observed in the patients, that might help to understand the mechanisms involved in metastasis. Biomarker is the technique of proteomics which has helped in diagnosing and treating tumor metastasis.
Proteomics and Neurology:-
The techniques of proteomics are beneficial for the field of neurology as they are helpful in detecting brain diseases and body fluids in neurodegeneration. Proteomics makes it possible to observe brain proteins like synaptosomal proteins, antioxidant proteins enzymes etc.
Proteomics and Fatal and Maternal Medicine:-
Though scientists have succeeded in decoding the whole human genome and they are able to extract information about the DNA sequences but unfortunately they are still unable to take any information about the proteins from that genome. They don't yet know that when any disease occurs in the human body, what the protein level is at that time. The field of proteomics provides information about the protein levels to some extent and many medicines are developed for certain diseases.
Proteomics and Diabetes:-
As the name shows proteomics gives information about various functions of proteins and how they are modified in a tissue or cell. If any protein is present in the genome with altered function, proteomics techniques provide opportunities for the screening and qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proteins. These techniques are also helping in the research of diabetes.
Proteomics and Nutrition Research:-
Proteins are the basic components of the body. Almost all the functions of the body take place because of proteins. Proteomics enable the scientists to analyze the functions and characteristics of certain proteins present in the nutrients and they see their importance in the growth of an organism. The techniques of proteomics are very useful for analyzing the protein levels in nutrients.
About Author / Additional Info: