Proteomics is the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome. It involves identification of protein in a body and the determination of their role in physiological and pathophysiological (diseased condition) function or conditions. For example in cancer protein is unexpressed.
Comparison of proteome and genome
• It is a dynamic entity. It depends on a condition for example if a student is sitting in examination room at that time stress proteins will be releasing while sitting at home will have different proteins expressing. It also depends on nature of tissue, on the state of development, on environmental conditions. As metabolism is directly related to environmental conditions.
• Multiple proteome per organism.
• Proteome vary in each cell.
• Proteomic begins with functionally modified proteins and works back to the gene responsible for its function.
• It is a static entity. For example the genome which we inherit throughout our life remains static.
• One genome per organism.
• Genome will be same in each cell.
• In genomic we basically start with gene and infer what their products are.
Why proteomics is essential?
Objective of proteomics is to identify all the proteins and make proteome map that shows which protein is malfunctioning. We can identify proteins through different techniques for example with the help of antibodies. Every protein has different antibodies that bind specifically with the specific protein. There are some points which tell why proteomics is essential.
• The function of protein depends upon its structure and interactions, neither of which can be predicted accurately based on sequence information alone.
• For the large scale analysis of gene function, the typical strategy is to completely inactive each gene or over express it. In each case resulting phenotype may not be informative. The loss of many proteins is lethal and this tells us the protein is essential but it does not tell us what actually protein does.
• The abundance of given transcript may not reflect the abundance of a corresponding protein. For example one gene will have multiple transcripts and one transcript will have multiple proteins.
• Protein diversity is generated post-transcriptionally. For example, if one gene is mutated multiple non-functional proteins will be generated.
• Protein diversity often depends on post-transcriptional modification.
• The function of a protein depends upon its localization. For example, a protein is made in cytosol but expressed in its location (nucleus).
• Some biological samples do not contain nucleic acids. For example, urine, serum, etc.
• Proteins are the most therapeutic relative molecules in the body.
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