DNA forensics is a branch of forensics which uses DNA molecule to find about the criminals. This field of forensics not only deals with the human crimes but also gives information about the endangered species and is also used to track the epidemics of food borne.

Every individual has its unique DNA molecule and genetic information in every DNA is different from the others. DNA forensics has not yet made progress and only small portions of the DNA molecule are observed at one time, but advancements are being made in this field and in the near future, it will be possible to examine the whole genome of the individual who is a suspect. If the identification of the individual is concerned then 13 loci of the DNA molecule are taken by the scientists. These 13 loci are different in every individual and there are very little chances that these loci match with another person. By taking the 12 loci of the DNA molecule of an individual, a DNA profile is established. DNA is used for the various purposes in forensics like:

1) Paternity of the child is determined.

2) If the wrong person is caught during the crime then his DNA is matched with the evidence found from the crime scene, if it does not match with the individual then he is released.

3) Usually the criminal can be caught by the evidence found from the crime scene.

4) DNA forensics is also used to identify the endangered species. By this technique these species can be protected from extinction.

5) DNA forensics allows the matching of the organ with the person who needs transplantation of that particular organ.

6) Pedigree of the seeds and livestock can also be determined.

Process of identification of the Criminal:-
First the police observe the scene of the crime closely, if they find any hair, blood spot or nail or a finger print, they collect it and send it to the forensics department. The scientists observe closely the evidence and the information they already have with them. For example, if the fingerprint is found from the crime scene, then the scientist will perform his duty by analyzing the swirling patterns on the finger. That finger print is compared with the data present at the police department. If it matches with the criminal, the criminal can easily be caught.

Benefits of DNA Forensics:-
DNA forensics has made it possible to solve the cases of murder which were still unsolved for many years. TV has played an important role in creating awareness among the people by playing series like CSI. As we all know that every cell of the body contains the complete genetic information that is why evidence for the murder or other crime can be obtained from any part of the body. In the past there were no methods to identify the innocent people, but DNA forensics has made possible to differentiate between the innocent and criminals.

About Author / Additional Info: