Genetic engineering is the field of biotechnology which deals with genes. iactually this is the combination of different technologies which come together to make genetic engineering. Due to this field, sometimes genes are taken from one organism and inserted into another organism to see certain effects. Sometimes new genes are developed and inserted into the organism to make various changes. Genetic engineering is also helpful in developing human organs and inserting them into the body. Various techniques are involved for all these processes. Some of them are as follows:

Microinjection is a technique of genetic engineering which uses glass micropipette to inject a substance into the human or animal cells. This is the only technique which does not need ant plasmids or vectors for undergoing the process. During this process, usually genetic material of an organism with a new gene is used to inject into the other organism's cells. As cells are very large, whether animal cells or plant cells, that is why a small micropipette is used for this purpose. When the genes of interest are inserted into the new cells, they find their corresponding genes and combine with them to show certain features or characteristics.

The other technique of genetic engineering is bioballistics. In this technique metal silvers are used which are coated with the desired gene. These metal silvers are of very small size usually smaller than a cell. These metal silvers along with the desired genetic material are inserted in the shot gun. This shot gun targets the cells of interest and injects the genetic material into it. When the genetic material enters the cell, it finds the nucleus and enters in it. There it combines with the genes of the host cell.

Recombinant DNA:-
Recombinant DNA is the oldest of all techniques of genetic engineering. This technique uses plasmids or vectors to enter the genetic material into the host cell. Usually viruses or bacteria are used as vectors. Bacteria have the small circular plasmid in it. When scientists have to make changes in the genetic material of any living organism, they insert the desired gene into the plasmid which forms a ring. Bacteria start multiplying and form multiple copies of the plasmid along with its own genetic material. Then it is transferred into the host cells. When it reaches the nucleus of the host cells, it releases the gene of interest. This foreign gene then combines with the host cell's genetic material. The synthesis of human insulin took place through this method.

When vectors are made, then viruses are used. But viruses are considered as harmful microorganisms therefore scientists when inject a gene of interest into it, they do not allow the viral genetic material to reproduce but only the foreign gene multiplies.

Electro and Chemical poration:-
In this technique, cells are made porous so that the genes can enter into the. These pores are usually made by bathing the cells into special chemicals or electric current is used to bath the cells. Genetic material enters the cells through pores and reaches the nucleus. There it combines with the host cell's genes and show certain properties.

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