Genetic engineering is very useful technique of the biotechnology. Genetic engineering uses different techniques to alter the genes of the humans such as transformation and molecular cloning. Agriculture and medicine are two areas which make use of the genetic engineering techniques most. Basic purpose of genetic engineering is to alter the genes. Those genes which are defective and do not work properly can be replaced by the healthy genes using genetic engineering. Different enzymes are used to cut the DNA molecules from specific locations and are replicated by polymerase chain reaction and then used for various purposes. Genetic engineering has changed human life positively. This field is of great benefit for humans. Some of the benefits of genetic engineering are as follows:
1) By using the techniques of genetic engineering, first human insulin developed for the diabetic patients. Insulin is a special component of the body and lack of this component causes diabetes.
2) Gene therapy is a technique of genetic engineering which is used for medical purpose. It is used to replace the defective genes with the healthy genes during the genetic and other diseases. Many heart and autoimmune diseases have been treated by using gene therapy. In future, there is possibility that gene therapy would be used to treat Huntington's disease or cystic fibrosis by replacing the defective genes with healthy ones or make changes in them.
3) Genetic engineering has enabled the pharmaceutical industries to make such drugs which fight against the diseases efficiently. For example human growth hormone extracted from the cadavers.
4) Agriculture has taken advantage of this field by modifying the plant species. Using the techniques of genetic engineering, agriculturists have succeeded in making pesticides and insecticides which protect the plants against pests and insects and help grow the plants quickly. Due to genetic engineering, photosynthesis process has improved in plants which have increased the resistance in plants against certain diseases.
5) Forensics has also taken advantage of genetic engineering. DNA fingerprinting has made it possible to identify criminals. The paternity of the child has also been made possible by using the technique of DNA fingerprinting.
6) Cloning is one of the most important benefits of genetic engineering. Dolly sheep was the first animal which was cloned from the similar parent. Now because of cloning, many organs and tissues can be cloned.
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