Colostrum- A Natural Nutraceutical
Authors: Tanmay Hazra, A.S.Hariyani and A.J.Thesia
Assistant Professor,Kamdhenu University Guj-365601
Colostrum, the first milk by the mammary gland after parturition, is especially rich in bioactive proteins. Due to presence of different bioactive proteins, there has been increased interest in consumption of bovine colostrum or its supplemented products, based on different health benefits. Research suggested that, consumption of colostrum or colostrum derived products helps in improving health, diarrhea in persons with immune-deficiency syndromes, Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) induced gastrointestinal disturbances and aspects of post surgical acute phase response. Thus, colostrum based products are wide accredited as modern nutraceutical and gaining popularity in health care market.
Bioactive proteins in Colostrum-
In bovine colostrum, immunoglobulin G (IgG; subclasses IgG1 and IgG2) is the major immunoglobulin. The Igs are accumulated in the mammary gland during the prepartum dry period, and then secreted in colostrum. IgG1 constitutes approximately 80% of the total Ig content of immunodeficiency virus type I in vitro. In bovine colostrum immunoglobulin content 11 - 45 mg/L.
The concentration of lysozyme in colostrum is about 0.14 - 0.7 mg/L, respectively. Lysozyme is active against a number of gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria.
Lactoperoxidase is a major antibacterial enzyme in colostrum. The Lactoperoxidase system is toxic to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus mutans , Staphylococcus aureus and psychrotrophic bacteria in milk.
Lactoferrin is an 80 KDa iron-binding glycoprotein present in colostrum. The concentration of lactoferrin in bovine colostrum is about 1.5 - 5 mg/ml Lactoferrin has been shown to inhibit the growth of several microbes, including Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteria , Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus etc.
Proline Rich Polypeptides(PRP)
An immunomodulatory peptide present in bovine colostrum known as proline-rich polypeptide that stimulates immature thymocytes to turn into functionally active T-cells. PRP acts as an immune-regulator by changing surface markers and functions of cells. Apart from these bioactive proteins, many growth factors present in colostrum.
Health benefit of colostrum
ü Prevention of gastrointestinal damage
ü Autoimmune diseases
ü Respiratory disease
ü Cardiovascular disease
Commercially colostrum based products are available in the form of powder, tablets, lozenges, beverages and dietary supplement.
About Author / Additional Info:
I am currently working as Assistant Professor in Kamdhenu University, Gujarat