Enzymes are biocatalysts and are made up of amino acid or they are proteins. All enzymes are protein but all proteins are not enzymes. Enzymes can be differentiated between one another and they can be used as diagnostic tool to detect some diseases in human. Enzyme concentration varies in diseased condition therefore variation in enzyme concentration can be used as tool in detecting disease or disorders related to the particular part of the human body.
Enzyme concentration can be detected at plasma level, serum level or cellular level. Enzyme concentration depends on factors like enzyme formation, release into circulation and also enzyme clearance and cellular leakage of enzymes. Variation in enzyme concentration from the normal indicates disease or disorder in human.
Lactate Dehydrogenase and Disease:
1. Lactate dehydrogenase converts puyruate to lactate in a reversible manner. This enzyme exists in 5 forms such as LDH-1, LDH-2, LDH-3, LDH-4 and LDH-5. In other words lactate dehydrogenase is an isoenzyme and its normal concentration in body is 60-250 IU/L.
2. Lactate dehydrogenase is an important biological marker.
3. Disease of liver, heart, muscle and some form of cancer can be detected using Lactate dehydrogenase.
4. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration increases within 12hrs after myocardial infarction, therefore this can be used as indicator of myocardial infarction.
5. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration also increases during leukemia, renal cell necrosis, hepatic necrosis, carcinomas, muscular dystrophy and many more conditions.
Creatinine Phosphokinase and Disease:
1. Creatinine phosphokinase enzyme converts creatinine into phosphocreatinine using energy rich molecule such as ATP. This also exists in three different forms such as CPK-1, CPK-2, CPK-3. Normal concentration of creatinine phosphokinase is 4-60 IU/L.
2. CPK-1 concentration increases in brain injury may be occurred due to trauma, stoke or bleeding in the brain.
3. CPK-1 concentration also increases during lung injury in human.
4. CPK-2 level increases after myocardial stroke or heart attack, and also during viral infection of the heart muscle cells.
5. CPK-3 concentration increases in skeletal muscle injuries, muscular dystrophy and also after strenuous exercise.
Alkaline Phosphatase and Disease:
1. Alkaline phosphatase catalyses the reaction of phosphoric acid from monophosphate esters. It is also isoenzymes and occurs in six different forms.
2. Alkaline phosphatase level increases during liver damage due to hepatocarcinoma, liver cirrhosis, and much more.
3. Alkaline phosphatase level increases during ostioblastic activity in children.
4. Alkaline phosphatase level increases during hyperparathyroidism.
5. Alkaline phosphatase level increases during rickets, ostiomalacia.
6. Alkaline phosphatase level decreases during anemia.
7. Alkaline phosphatase level decreases during scurvy.
8. Alkaline phosphatase level decreases during defective calcification
Acid Phosphatase and Disease:
1. Acid phosphatase enzyme catalyses formation of phosphoric acid from monophosphate ester. Occur in two forms such as prostatic ACP and non-prostatic ACP.
2. Acid phosphatase enzyme used as biological marker of prostate cancer.
3. Acid phosphatase enzyme level are increased during conditions such as breast cancer, hyperparathyroidism, leukemia.
Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transferase and Disease:
1. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate trasferase enzyme act as marker of myocardial infraction and also other forms of heart diseases.
2. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate trasferase enzyme level also increases during kidney damage, liver damage, skeletal muscle damage.
Enzymes not only help in biological reactions of the body but also can be used as markers in detecting disease or any other abnormal conditions in the body of a human.
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