Fragile X syndrome is the mental illness which is caused by the abnormal function of a specific gene. The gene is responsible for the expression of a protein necessary for the brain development but during the illness, the brain produces very little of this protein or sometimes this protein is completely absent in the brain. It is a genetic disorder and passes from one generation to the other. The effects of this disease are determined by the amount of the protein and how much it is used. This disease affects mostly the intelligence. People who suffer from this disease have very low IQ level. Females also have this disorder but it varies from woman to woman. Some women have learning disabilities and some have mental impairment while others have normal IQ level.
Causes of Fragile X Syndrome:-
Fragile X syndrome is caused by the change in the gene called as the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 or FMR1. This gene is present on the X chromosome. Usually genes are responsible for making the proteins. These proteins perform different functions in the human body for example they are responsible for making the structure of tissues and organs and different chemical functions also take place due to these proteins.
Each gene present in the genome makes at least one protein and if some error occurs in that information then the protein will not be able to perform its function properly. The disease of fragile X syndrome also occurs because the brain of the person does not produce Fragile X mental retardation Protein in regular amounts. The amount of this protein shows that how severe the level of this disease is present in that person. The chances of having fragile X syndrome in boys are greater than the girls because they have only one X chromosome. Those people can also get affected to this syndrome whose parents do not have this disease.
Symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome:-
children who have the syndrome of fragile X have prominent symptoms like,
1) They show hyperactive behavior
2) They contain large forehead and large body size
3) Jaw is very prominent.
4) They contain large testicles after the beginning of puberty.
Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome:-
There is not any specific treatment of fragile x syndrome. Children who get proper education and training during this disease they have greater chances of using their skills and capabilities. The children who are totally mentally retarded they can also get training. They can at least help themselves in many activities. The children who get proper education and training at a very early stage, they can increase their skills very efficiently. There are three types of treatments given to the patients with fragile X syndrome.
Children suffering from severe mental retardation have the opportunity to get free education under the public law. The child from the age three till the age 21 can get free education. The law states that these children should get the special and proper education. They should not be treated as normal children. They should be treated on one to one tutoring bases and small groups should be made so that they get proper attention of their teacher. Child's abilities should be evaluated on the regular basis so that the teachers and parents can know that how much progress their child has made in how much time. Further changes should be made in their education level on the basis of their learning abilities. The child should be placed in three types of classrooms depending on the needs of the child. They can be placed in the full regular classrooms if they have fragile X syndrome but act normally. They can either be placed in a normal classroom but only a part of a day he can be sent to attend a special class or their should be special classrooms for such children if they are mentally retarded.
Speech language Therapists:-
This kind of therapists teaches children to improve their pronunciation and how complete sentences are spoken. They can even provide challenging environments to the children in whom they have to solve some problems and use their language. Some children with fragile X syndrome are unable to develop functional speech, for this purpose, the therapists use nonverbal ways to teach them in the form of small picture cards.
Physical therapists enable the children to improve their balance and posture by indulging them in exercises and build their motor control. Parents can also get education about the exercises which improve their child's muscles.
Sometimes children suffering from fragile X syndrome behave in a negative way. Behavioral therapists find ways to stop them from behaving negatively and teach the child to adjust in the negative environment.
There are not any medicines yet in the market which can cure fragile X syndrome. But some of the symptoms related to this syndrome can be treated by using medicines. Medications alone are of no help until they are combined with any type of therapy.
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