A biosensor is an analytical device that used to detect record and also transmit information of every physiological change of target analyte that combines the biological component with a physicochemical detector. The potential for biosensor technology is most likely to be revolutionize analysis and control of biological systems. These are highly specific, biocompatible and give the precise and accurate results as compared to others enzymatic, colorimetric, spectophotometric and fluorometric methods.

There are three types of commonly known biosensors:

1) Optical biosensors: These are based on surface plasma resonance,
2) Electrochemical biosensors: These are based on amperiometric sensing and conductometric sensing and
3) Enzymatic biosensor: These are based on immobilization of enzymes on biological membranes and further its use for quantitative analysis such as glucose biosensor.

Previously, glucose was estimated on 'finger-prick' blood samples with a colorimetric test strip and recently with an amperometric 'pen'-size biosensor device by the patient themselves. In practice, however, the parallel development of several types of sensor, frequently employing very different measurement parameters is a more realistic. A new amperometric uric acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing uricase composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. Thus, these diagnostic kits which are based on biosensor technology is easily portable, very simple to use and require the minimum of expert interpretation. Biosensors have their application in food analysis too which are used in food industry optic coated with antibodies to detect pathogens and food toxins.

Other potential applications for biosensors: Potential applications of biosensors are its valuable approach in terms of research and commercial applications such as identification of a target molecule and biological recognition element. Hence, biosensors are now commonly used:
• For clinical diagnosis as biomedicine
• For agricultural and veterinary purposes
• For fermentation control and in food and beverages industries
• For microbial analysis
• For pharmaceutical and drug analysis
• For industrial effluent control
• For pollution control by monitoring various toxic gases

About Author / Additional Info:
Dr. Kirti Rani Sharma,
Assistant Professor (II),
Amity Institute of Biotechnology,
Amity University, sec-125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303 (UP), India.
Office Phone no: +91-120-4392946
Mobile No: +91-9990329492
Email ID: krsharma@amity.edu, Kirtisharma2k@rediffmail.com