Vaccination is administered to prevent various forms of diseases. When these vaccines are given they basically improve the immunity to a particular disease by developing adaptive immunity to the disease. When an antigen is administered through vaccination, the body recognizes this as foreign and starts producing antibodies to kill it and remembers it, so even if they encounter later they can destroy them.



Some vaccines are classified as optional vaccines. These vaccine doses are often not obligatory when compared to the standard vaccinations. . Parents should think about each one and make a careful decision about whether to give it to their child.
Optional Vaccinations may include:
1. Hepatitis A Vaccine
2. Hib (Haemophilus Influenza Type B) Vaccine
3. Chicken Pox Vaccine
4. Influenza Vaccine
5. H1N1 Vaccine
6. Rotavirus Vaccine
7. Pneumococcal Vaccine
8. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

Hepatitis A Vaccine
The Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes acute hepatitis which is the inflammation of the liver. Two doses are needed to protect against this usually mild sickness. It can be given after the age of one year. The symptoms are usually same as fever and vomiting which may get unnoticed and eventually develop lifelong immunity to the disease. Most of the children automatically acquire this immunity even they reach ten years of age

Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type B) Vaccine
This is a bacteria which causes meningitis , pneumonia, epiglottitis and other life-threatening illnesses. The Hib vaccine can protect your child against these. One to four doses are needed, depending on the age at which the first dose is given.

Chicken Pox Vaccine
This is another viral illness which almost all children suffer. Symptoms include fever and blisters all over the body. A Varicella vaccine is available to prevent this troublesome disease in your child. Only a single dose is needed, given after the age of 1 year.

Influenza Vaccine
Influenza is a viral infection caused by the Influenza virus. And most of them recover soon.

H1N1 Vaccine

The Influenza A is a strain of virus which is communicable in nature.

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Pneumococcal disease is caused by a group of bacteria called pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis and bacteraemia.
Rotavirus Vaccine
Rotavirus is a virus that infects the gastrointestinal tract causing gastroenteritis.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, which develops cervical cancer and some uncommon cancers.
When preferring an optional vaccine, we should always consider the occurrence of the disease and infection and rate of mortality because of the disease. Socioeconomic factors must be seriously considered before including an 'optional'vaccine in the national immunization schedule.


Blending together of two or more vaccine together under one vaccination is called as combination vaccine. The advantage of this vaccine is that lot of pain can be reduced caused by the constant pricks, and infection and fever which are caused during each separate vaccination.
In Combination Vaccines Generally the cost will be less compared to taking the vaccines separately

The DTP vaccine is an example of a combination vaccine. It includes toxoids against tetanus and diphtheria and killed pertussis bacteria, which in a single dose can prevent against all the three diseases. This has now been combined with hepatitis B vaccine to give a four disease vaccine, and the addition of the hemophilus influenza type b vaccine makes a five in one vaccine'
The making of combination vaccine is not so easy. All the components of the different vaccine should get along physically, chemically, and biologically.
Pediarix, ProQuad, and Comvax, RotaTeq an oral vaccine, and nasal vaccines (FluMist) is also an example of combination vaccine. Where the children get fewer shots than he expected one.


Single dose vaccines are costlier because of packing .But they can be preferred because of the following reasons
• Less chance of contamination and associated risks
• Less chances of quantity errors during administration.
• Better chance of maintaining efficiency
Because they are safe parents can also prefer to use single dose vaccination.

List of Vaccines which are safe:
1. BCG Vaccine
2. DTaP- Infanrix/Tripacel
3. HiB - Hiberix/Act HiB
4. Tritanrix HB - DPT + Hepatitis B
5. TetraActHiB -DPT + HiB
6. Pentaxim- IPV + DTaP +HiB
7. Injectable(Inatctivated) Polio Vaccine - Imovax
8. Oral Polio Vaccine - OPV
9. Hepatitis B- Engerix B
10. Pneumococcal vaccine- Prevenar
11. Measles Vaccine
12. MMR- Priorix/Tresivac
13. Rubella Vaccine- R-Vac
14. Typhoid Vaccine- Typherix
15. Hepatitis A- HavPur, Avaxim, Haverix
16. Influenza Vaccine- Vaxigrip
17. Chicken pox- Okavax/Varilrix
18. Tdap booster- Boostrix

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