Pollution is any unwanted and harmful substance in the environment. They usually cause harm to the ecosystem as well as the human health. Many diseases can occur due to the presence of pollutants in the environments for example carcinogens case cancers. Pollution can be present in the environment in any form that is in the form of radiations, chemicals, heat or noise.
Types of pollution:-
There are many types of pollution; some of them are as follows;
Air is an important component of our life because it provides oxygen to our body. Air consists of, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapors and inert gases. As the world is making progress day by day, pollution is also increasing in the environment. Smoke of the factories makes the air polluted. Similarly other human activities release such substances in the air, such as chemicals and radiations which cause the harmful effects on the health of humans, animals and plants. There are many other factors of the air pollution which are causing harmful effects on the environment. For example, acid rains, smog and holes in the ozone layer are the major factors of air pollution.
Another cause of the air pollution is the release of some harmful particles from the burning of energy used for fuel. Diesel smoke is the example of this type of air pollution. These particles are very small and cause the harmful effects on the human health. Some authorities state that the smoke which comes out of the burning wood is also the cause of air pollution. Smoke which cars release is also the cause of air pollution and is the major source of causing cancer in humans because it contains carcinogens.
Water pollution is also the major problem of the modern world. When water is contaminated by some harmful contaminants such as industrial wastes, then it makes the water polluted. It is the most important environmental issue beside air pollution. Water pollution puts harmful effects on all the sources of water like lakes, ponds, rivers and seas. The water which contains contaminants is harmful for drinking because it can cause many diseases like diarrhea, malaria etc.
Water can be polluted either by wastes of the industries or the oil which is transported through ships. Waste released from the factories contains harmful substances like chemicals which pass from lakes and ponds into the rivers. When this water is used for drinking, it causes diseases. Similarly when the oil is transported from one country to the other through the ships, sometimes it happens that ships get damaged and oil leaks into the water. It contaminates the sea water and kills the creatures living in the sea such as fish. There should be some precautionary measures taken before the oil is transported through water and there should be law for the factories that they do not release waste into the water.
Studies have shown that the city lights which blot out the stars are also harmful for the health. They are considered as the cause of light pollution. It is found by the researchers through studies that the exposure of the people to the bright nocturnal light may decrease the production of a hormone, melatonin which controls the sleep and wake cycles in the human body. If the production of the melatonin will decrease, it will eventually result in the breast cancer in women. Bright light at night is very risky now.
Back in 1980s, it was found that the rate of breast cancer is higher in the industrialized regions due to the bright light at night. Women who work in the night shifts are more likely to suffer from breast caner than the women working in the day time. To avoid the breast cancer, it is recommended that women should take nine hours sleep during the night in a dark room.
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