Transgenic Plant: A novel approach for enhancing the nutritional values of plants
Authors: Pooja Sharma, Nirmala Sehrawat, Paavan Singhal, Preeti Kumar Sharma & Anil Kumar Sharma
Maharishi Markandeswar University, Mullana (Ambala)
Corresponding Author: email@example.com
By late 1990s, recombinant DNA technology is acknowledged for the production of transgenic crops. The aim behind the transgenic is to introduce some new character to the plant that does not occur naturally. A transgenic genomic DNA may contains a single gene or many genes that have been inserted in vitro conditions. If the inserted gene is from the same species is known as cis-gene whereas inserted gene from different species is trans-gene. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soil bacterium has the ability to infect plant cell. Using genetic engineering Agrobacterium used as vehicle for DNA transfer into plant chromosome, through a tumor inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid). Ti plasmid is an extracellular DNA of soil bacterium that contains transfer DNA region (t-DNA), where one can insert gene of interest and transferred to a plant cell through a process known as the “floral dip transformation” in case of Arabidodpsis.
This technique have high throughput values and involved in a number of processes like improving shelf life, higher yield, improved quality, pest resistance, tolerant to heat, cold and drought resistance, against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Transgenic plants have been micropropagated for industrial and pharmaceutical values in such a way that they express foreign proteins (vaccines). These vaccines or antibodies (Plantibodies) are specific to the target and as plants are free of human diseases, thus no extra screening for viruses and bacteria toxins required. It is not that the use of transgenic are limited to the genetically modified plants which resist to the disease but it could be significantly used for reductions in the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, reducing havoc impacts on the environment as well as creating a healthy environment for farmers, and can decrease the significant energy demands in agriculture.
Figure: 1 General strategy used for production of transgenic plants .
Golden rice could help to ensure improved crops and other benefits from modern biotechnology reach to the small farmers and poor areas that need the most on priority. Golden rice is a vitamin-A enriched stable food, having golden colored grain, which is able to synthesize β-carotene (a precursor molecule for production of vitamin A). In the early 1990s, Prof. Peter Beyer and Ingo Potrykus gathered information and develop the concept of golden rice that turn into reality as Golden Rice. Two genes artificially inserted in rice activate the synthesis of β-carotene in the grain. Golden Rice, a good source of vitamin-A can cure various eye diseases like nightblindness, colourblindness, xerophthalmia. Similarly, vitamin-A enriched banana could save thousands of Ugandan life (Walz, 2014).
More understanding about traditional and modern biotechnological facts more would be the use of biotechnology to play a valuable role in the need to provide healthy and nutritious diet globally. Plant science is a wide area but we can focus on critical points for humankind, its true but after all, it is necessity of world!
1.Dubock A. (2014). The present status of Golden Rice. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University, 33: 69-84.
2. Walz, E. (2014). Vitamin-A super banana in human trials. Nature Biotechnology, 32: 857
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