Nanotoxicology is termed coined for toxicity caused by longer exposure of nanoparticles. Sometimes, nanoparticles may lead to severe pro-inflammatory effects especially in lung tissues from where they are usually translocated from their site of deposition to distant sites such as the blood, brain, liver, skin and gut. Some of nanoparticles (> 100 nm diameter) have greater their surface area to volume ratio and the higher biological activity by the increased production of reactive oxygen species (carbon fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nanoparticle metal oxides) with free radicals which may result in oxidative stress, inflammation, deformation of proteins, DNA by genetic mutation as well as weaken the body immune system too. Keeping the future overview of nanotoxicology, it is important to move on Green Nanotechnology which has concept of preparation of bio-degradable nanoparticles despite of non-degradable nanoparticles.
Toxicity potential of nanoparticles
Nanoparticles get entery via blood stream, inhalation and ingestion which may cross biological membranes, tissues and organs. Nanoparticles may be easily engulfed cell mitochondria and the cell nucleus where they caused cell death due to DNA mutation. Size is challenging key factor to determine the potential toxicity of desired particle. Other properties of nanoparticles may influence toxicity such as chemical composition, shape, surface structure, surface charge, aggregation and solubility. Nanoparticles agglomerate have high ionic strength to accumulated environmental and biological fluids to some extent from which they may easily reach to target sites. Hence, this agglomeration must be considered as important parameter for nanotoxicity studies. Nanostructures of these chemically synthesized nanoparticles can lead to inflammation, allergy, autoimmune diseases and immunosuppression or even caused deleterious affect to the immune cells too. However, the large number of variables influencing toxicity means that it is difficult to generalize about health risks associated with exposure to nanoparticles - each new nanomaterial must be assessed individually and all material properties must be taken into account.
About Author / Additional Info:
Dr. Kirti Rani Sharma,
Assistant Professor (II),
Amity Institute of Biotechnology,
Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida
Sec-125, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Noida-201303 (UP), India.
Office Phone no: +91-120-4392946
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