Nano-biotechnology is an emerging field of nanotechnology with biochemical and biological applications or activities. It integrates biotechnology on the nano-scale. In order to engineer new devices (biosensors), existing elements of nature has been studied in nano-biotechnology.
Biotechnology is a branch of molecular biology having applications of technological revolution related to biology and life sciences. Studies have shown that bio-nanotechnology and nano-biotechnology has been interchanged, although these two terms are distinguished and a distinction has been drawn between the two. Bio-nanotechnology usually refers to intersect between biotechnology and nanotechnology while nano-biotechnology refers to goals of biotechnology with the use of nanotechnology. Bio-nanotechnology often includes the use of biomolecules (any organic molecule produced by a living organism) as a motivation for Nano-technological devices.
Multidisciplinary activities that are associated with biosensors (an analytical device for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component) - predominantly where chemistry, biology, biophysics (uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems), nano-medicine (medical application of nanotechnology), photonics (including the emission, generation, modulation, transmission, switching, signal processing, amplification, detection and sensing of light) and engineering congregate are often described by means of nano-technology. Other examples for the measurement in biology are waveguide techniques (two-wire transmission line used in conventional circuits is inefficient for transferring electromagnetic energy at microwave frequencies) such as dual polarization interferometry.
Another important example of nano-biotechnology involves the research of nano-spheres (a spherical particle whose diameter is measured in nanometers) glazed with fluorescent polymers. To target a specific molecule researchers are trying hard to design polymers whose fluorescent is extinguished. Different metabolites would be detected by different polymers. To overcome human health problems or problems that are associated with tumors these fluorescent coated polymers would be introduced into human body which might someday lead to new biological assesses. As we know that nano-biotechnology field is new to medical, end user, and commercial bodies.
In the expansion of vehicles which can be used for the treatment of cancer, diagnosis of various diseases and application of nano-biosensors, the unification of antibodies and nanoparticles with high affinity and specificity via receptor-ligand mode is of an overriding significance. The artificial nanomaterial like Nano-liposomes and Nanoparticles and biological objects like an antibody forms bio-complex that is carried by the establishment of covalent bonds. These covalent bonds are based on the specificity of chemical and structural properties
(biocompatibility, water solubility and biodegradability). There is a need to understand the relationship of the kinetic traits and the thermodynamics of translational, rotational mobility's of antibody-membrane association, the interactions with the cell surface, the molecules that are circulating and various other synthetic Nano-molecules. By having all this knowledge one can easily understand the disease and the treatment for that disease and can go through all other applications. This knowledge is of great importance in the establishment of nanoscale devices. Moreover, to gain a detailed knowledge about the energetically favorable binding modes Molecular Dynamics Simulation can be used.
Recently the studies have been showed by Noon et al.,that natural materials like proteins, antibodies can easily recognize specific nanoparticles. For example, the mouse immune system has a specific antibody that can easily recognize C60 fullerenes with the binding affinity of about 25mM.
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