Bacteria are the microscopic microorganisms. Their single cell does not contain a proper cell membrane and cell organelles. There are no mitochondria in it. They divide by binary fission, no mitosis or meiosis take place in them Bacteria are of so much importance in the biotechnology industry. Before the progress of biotechnology, it had been used in many domestic applications for example in the process of making yogurt. Bacteria are also of importance because they produce secondary metabolites. E.coli has special impotence because it is used in the cloning of many genes. Bacteria can also be used in agriculture.
Applications of Bacteria in Agriculture:-
There are certain bacteria which contain special properties which are beneficent for plants. These bacteria are present in soil and they affect the crops by fighting against the harmful bacteria and they are also the source of providing nutrition to the crops. Some bacteria like rhizobia and agrobacteria are used to release seed inoculants and are very useful for the plants. The bacteria like Azoarcus are of much importance for the plants that it fixes the endophyte of the grasses. This type of bacteria is mostly helpful for the crop of rice and they are very much environment friendly. When the seed is sown in the soil, bacteria play an important role in its germination. The bacteria grow in the seed ad seed in return get food from it. Bacteria increase the fertility of the soil and provide such nutrients to the soil which are useful for the plant growth. They also help in softening the food in the seed and this is the reason plants come out of the seeds. Though it is not certain what role bacteria play when the plants grow but they are of much importance in the early stages of plant development. Certain pesticides are developed using bacteria which give benefit to the crops. Bacillus thurengiensis is a gram positive bacterium used in agriculture.
Applications of Bacteria in Dairy Industry:-
It is a fact that from the beginning since the man has been used cattle for domestic use, bacteria played an impotent role in it. It is proved that milk does not contain any bacteria when it comes out of the glands of the animal, but after it is collected, all the changes which occur in the milk, they are all because of bacteria. Bacteria play their role in the making of yogurt. When milk along with some yogurt in it is kept for some hours, it will convert into yogurt. It is the bacteria which leads the whole process and changes the milk into yogurt. Similarly in making of beer and bread, bacteria are used.
Applications of Bacteria in Environment:-
Bacteria are very much of importance for the environment as they make the environment free from the pollutants. The pollutants which emerge from the industrial wastes, bacteria have the ability to digest them so that they can be recycled in the form of energy and nutrients and do not harm the environment. Bacteria also convert the trees into coal which are buried under the earth for millions and billions of years. This coal can be used for fuel, for producing electricity and various other useful purposes.
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