Enzymes are a biological substance which is made of different kinds of proteins. It takes place in various purposes of cell such as cell metabolism and it increases the rate of reaction between biomolecules. Enzymes can also be used as catalysts during the biological processes. The molecular weight of enzymes varies from 10,000 to one million. As I have described earlier that all the enzymes are proteins, but there are a few number of enzymes which are not made up of proteins but small molecules of catalytic RNA.
There are some enzymes which need a co-factor during the biological reaction. In biotechnology, enzymes are used to make cultures and are used in the development of medicines. Enzymes are also used in the process of food preservation. They can be used in diagnosing diseases or they provide services for the washing and other environmental processes.
There are various applications of the enzymes in biotechnology:-
For centuries, people have been using enzymes for biotechnological practices for producing the food. The common application of enzyme biotechnology is in the making of bear, yogurt, vinegar and different types of cheeses. Tough people didn't now that how these things transform into a different shape, for example, when a small amount pf yogurt is deposited in the milk, after 8 to 10 hours it will convert into yogurt. People didn't know what actually took place due to which milk converted into yogurt. But biotechnology has made it possible to understand this process. There are some kinds of bacterial enzymes which are responsible for the conversion of milk into yogurt. Same is the case in making of bread or cheese where some enzymes of yeast are used. These enzymes are also responsible for changing the color and flavor of the substance. Enzymes also make possible the use of corn or wheat syrups as sweeteners in industry. It is the biotechnology which has enhanced enzymes to be used in various biological processes and in less time, result can be obtained.
For many years, enzymes have been used in making of different detergents like laundry detergents, beauty soaps and other detergents. Some enzymes are involved in the degradation of proteins which cause stains. Some enzymes like lipases are used for the removal of fat or grease stains by melting the fats.
3) Stickies removal:-
In the paper industry, stickies are the harmful organic materials which are responsible in reducing the final paper. They also make blockage of the machinery which causes harm to the economy. Chemically removal of stickies is not very successful because they are joined together through ester bonds. That is why their removal with the help of esterase enzymes is very beneficial. Stickies can be cut into small pieces with the help of these enzymes and due to this; they are easily soluble and can be removed.
Biotechnology has made it possible to use enzymes in the textile industry instead of chemicals which are also harmful for the environment. Enzymes are responsible for the coloring of the cloth, increase the quality of the cloth and reduce impurities in the cotton cloth. All the above mentioned processes if performed using enzymes, they reduce the time and provide good quality cloth.
Biotechnology has always given the opportunities to make life of people better. It has given the people better life and has tried its best to make the environment free of pollutants.
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