As a matter of fact, biotechnology is one of the most eminent and emerging sciences of the day. This is largely because it defines the latest pattern of scientific innovations which focus at deriving useful products for human race by effectively combining the biological systems with the engineering methodologies. Biotechnology is generally referred to as the branch of biological sciences which involves the usage of livings organisms (which may be plants, animals, birds, bacteria, fungi, viruses or other defined groups of living organisms) and the biological processes being carried out within these living organisms (including all the anabolic, catabolic and reproductive systems and processes) in specific ways, applying the latest engineering tools and techniques to make certain useful commercial products on small and large scale. Biotechnology is taught, learnt and practiced around the world today. A number of leading scientific research institutions have launched huge programs and projects relating to biotechnology and are of the view that a good number of arising problems for human race on earth such as food crisis, can only be addressed through the effective and timely use of biotechnological practices and methodologies.

Key Sciences Involved In Biotechnology
It goes without saying that biotechnology is a very vast and dynamic field in its own sense. It makes use of a larger number of other sciences ranging from biological to engineering sciences and produces effective results thereafter. Some of these key sciences which are frequently brought in user while dealing with biotechnological process are discussed below.
• Genetic Engineering is probably the most significant of all these key sciences which are said to be utilized while tackling a biotechnological project. Genetic engineering actually involves the manipulation of genetic material of a living organism which may be plants, animals, birds, bacteria, fungi, viruses or other defined groups of living organisms so as to produce the desired changes in that living organism. As a matter of fact, the genetic material of any living organism controls all the activities and products of that organism, thus by bringing the required change in the genetic material, one can be able to make that living organism work exactly in the desired way and produce exactly the desired product. Therefore, the use of genetic engineering becomes very important in biotechnology.
• For all those who are interested in knowing about biotechnological methodologies, it would be of immense interest that biotechnologists target microorganisms for their experiments and projects rather than dealing with macro organisms. Microorganisms include small microscopic organisms and macroscopic organisms involve large living organisms such as plants and animals. This is largely because these microorganisms are easy to study and easy to work on as they have a comparatively simple and understandable genetic makeup. Thus, this explains why microbiology, another key branch of biology involved in biotechnological methodologies is so important while discussing the key sciences involved in biotechnology.
• Embryology is another major branch of biology involved in biotechnological processes. In the point of fact, most of the biotechnological products depend upon the reproduction ability of the living organisms. As they reproduce, the scientists expect them to produce the desired product. The process of this reproduction is well understood by having an adequate knowledge of embryology. Thus, this is why this particular branch of biology has been discussed as one of the key sciences while addressing this particular topic.
• Physiology, Tissue culture, Histology, Molecular biology are still other sciences worth discussing which play a considerable role while discussing the key issues in biotechnology.

Major Applications of Biotechnology
• Cloning has been recognized by the experts as one of the major application of this science. Cloning involves producing an exactly similar (physically and genetically) offspring and finds major applications in plant breeding and genetics sciences.
• Production of some very useful medicines by employing the biological systems of certain bacteria and a few other microorganisms has been yet another major application of biotechnology.
• Bioremediation is another key application of biotechnology which focuses on eliminating certain pollutants by making use of living systems of living organisms.
Thus, it can be safely concluded that biotechnology is playing a significant role in today's highly advanced and technically evolving era of human history and it seems to produce even promising results in the coming future.

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A determined and optimistic writer from Pakistan