Microorganisms are the small unicellular structures. Bacteria, viruses and fungi come under this category. They have he ability to reproduce themselves with the help of simple cell division. The single cell of the microorganisms contains the complete genetic material and this genetic material is transferred to the next generation of cells. They can increase in numbers but they cannot increase in size. They have great impact on human lives and are used for various purposes in biotechnology.

Production of many foods is possible with the help of microorganism. For example foods like bread, beer and cheese are produced with the help of yeast. Similarly bacteria are involved in the production of butter, yogurt, many kinds of chocolates, coffee and other foods of daily life.

It is very difficult to decode the human genome if any disorders occur in it as humans are the eukaryotic organisms. It means their body consists of various types pf cells and they are all differentiated into different tissues and organs. Microorganisms have made it possible to make such medicines which when enter the body, target the defected genes and make healthy changes in them and they become functional again. There is a common example of human insulin. Insulin is an antibiotic which is prescribed for the diabetic patients. Now it is possible to synthesize the insulin in microorganisms like bacteria and yeast. These microorganisms are inserted in the body in the form of vectors and cure the defected genes. Due to the availability of microorganisms in the environment, scientists have made use of them for making many medicines and drugs and also used them for drug delivery.

People will be surprised if they get to know that their body contains ten times more microorganisms than the body cells. These microorganisms are useful for the body and perform various useful functions, for example E.coli (specie of bacteria) resides in the intestine and releases such components which help in the digestion of the food. If microorganisms help in performing different body functions then they also take something from the body that is they take nutrients from the body. One purpose of bacteria in the body is to fight against those harmful bacteria which can cause diseases. For example there is also a bacterium in the gut which helps in synthesizing the vitamins like biotin, vitamin K and folic acid.

Biotechnology is one field which ha made use of microorganisms most. By using the techniques of biotechnology, scientists have succeeded in developing human insulin, growth hormones and other useful components of the body. Biotechnological processes use microorganisms for the drug delivery in the form of vectors and plasmids. Microorganisms have provided many beneficial things to agriculture as they are responsible for increasing the fertility of the soil. Due to this, the production of the plants increases and economy becomes strong.

Bacteria present in the environment are responsible for recycling wastes and for producing energy sources like carbon and nitrogen. Plants use carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. More the consumption of carbon dioxide will lead to more production of food. Some bacteria also help in cleaning the environment by digesting the pollutants and as a result they release nutrients which are environment friendly.

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