Gene therapy is very much beneficent in treating many dangerous diseases like cancer and hepatitis. As in this technique, new genes are inserted in the body which replace the defected genes and make the cell function in a normal way. but sometimes we don't get the required results in any therapy. Like other technologies gene therapy has also some issues. For example:
It is a fact that whenever any foreign object in the form of pathogens, vectors or plasmids enter the body, the immune system of the body sow response to it. It happens sometimes that immune response does not accept that foreign object and attacks it. It is possible that the immune system along with the antibodies and t-cells may destroy the foreign object. So when any object that is vector which is carrying the transgenic genes, they might be rejected by the immune system. Then it will also affect the gene therapy. There are chances that the immune system does not allow the repeated treatments of gene therapy in the patients with the disease like cancer.
If the disease is caused in the body by mutation in the single gene, then gene therapy can act against these genes effectively. It can easily insert the transgenic genes in the vectors and enter them into the body. These vectors will target the diseased genes and will replace them but if the disease is caused due to the mutations in the multiple genes like heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, Alzheimer's disease and Arthritis, then it is very difficult to do gene therapy. Defect in the multiple genes have less chances that they can be treated with gene therapy because, if vectors are introduced for the treatment of one gene, the other defected genes will remain in the diseased form and disease will not be cured.
Short lived nature of gene therapy:-
It is necessary that when the gene therapy starts functioning, the therapeutic DNA must be inserted into the cells and should start its function. Cells should be long living so that the scientists could achieve their goal. Due to the rapid division of many cells, it is very difficult for the gene therapy to show any helpful results. Therefore patients, who are treated with gene therapy, should be treated with repeated courses of gene therapy.
Viruses are used as vectors in gene therapy. When they are used as vectors, there pathogenic properties are blocked so that they do not cause any infection in the human body. But still there are chances that viruses may cause toxicity or the immune system does not accept them. It is also possible that viruses when triggered in the body, they may start showing their pathogenic properties and cause diseases in the human body.
Cause of Tumors:-
If the viral vectors are used then scientists have fear that they may target the wrong cells. This will result in the production of tumor or cancer cells because cells will start reproducing rapidly and without any control.
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