Microorganisms are very small unicellular organisms. They cannot be seen with the naked eye. Some microorganisms are prokaryotes and some are eukaryotes. These organisms are called as microorganisms because whenever they divide they reproduce into a single cell. But even the single cell contains al the important components which are necessary for their life. Their DNA molecule contains the complete genome sequence and contains the information of heredity. Microorganisms have great importance in biotechnology. They are used for various purposes, for example for the production of food and for the removal of pollutants from the environment. Here are some foods which are made from the microorganisms:
Butter is made from the cream usually, but the traditional method of making butter is by using yogurt. The cream is in pasteurized form. The addition of starter lactic acid makes it easy to make butter. This starter cream contains streptococcus cremoris or in other words S. lactis. To give the taste and odor to the butter, Lactobacillus diacetylactis plays an important role.
2)Production of meat:-
The fermentation of foods like sausages and salami takes place by using Pediucoccus cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum and some other members of the bacillus family.
Bacteria and fungi make it possible to produce soy sauce. By using these microorganisms, fermentation of rice and soy beans takes place. The special kind of bacteria which are used in making of soy sauce are Aspergillus oryzae, Lactobacillus delbrueckii etc.
Domestic method of making yogurt is to put some yogurt in the milk, after some hours it will completely convert into yogurt. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are added to the milk to produce yogurt.
5)Chocolates and Coffee:-
There are certain microorganisms which are used in the production of chocolates and coffee. Though microorganisms do not change the flavor of the coffee but they enhance the taste of chocolates and cocoa. The vectors used in the production of the chocolates are bacteria S. napoli and S. eastbourne. Scientists have made research about the chocolate and has observed that people who eat chocolate, they have less chances of having heart attack or stomach diseases.
Usually yeast is involved in the synthesis of beer. Two yeasts are much important in the process of fermentation of beer; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces ellipsoideus. These two types of yeast convert the grapes into wine or beer.
Biotechnology has made it possible to invent such methods through which different kinds of foods can be produced. Economically these foods are of great importance and are very reliable. Biotechnology also assures the safety of the food and harmful microorganisms cannot affect the foods.
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