Nanotechnology is a field of science which studies the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular level. Nanotechnology basically observes the materials at 100 nanometers or smaller units in one dimension. It tries to develop materials and devices within that size. Nanotechnology is a very diverse field. It ranges from the device physics to the molecular self assembly. There are many controversies about nanotechnology in the field of science. Because this field develops new materials and devices and they have very vast applications in medicine, energy production and electronics. Like all other techniques which are newly developed or introduced, nanotechnology has also the same issues of impact of nanomaterials in the environment.
Nanomedicine is the new field of biology which is used to treat different diseases. Like every other biotechnology fields, nanomaedicine is also flourishing and researchers are performing experiments on this technology. All nanoparticles are of different properties and due to this difference; the compounds which are generally known to be inert may become catalysts. Nanoparticles which are very small in size allow these catalysts to pentrate through cells and make interaction with the cellular molecules. Due to the different properties of nanoparticels, nanotechnology has played a vital role in the nanomedicine.
Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology which is used in biomedicine for different puposes such as; monitoring, repairing of cells, construction and is also used in the control of biological systems on the level of molecules. Different nanoparticals which are engineered are used in the nanoparticle drug, vaccine delivery and in vivo imaging. Due to the different characteristics of nanopartcles, nanomedicine will be used in the cell repair machines, electronic interfaces and will also be used in surgeries and different therapies in the near future.
One objective of nenomedicine is to use nanoparticels to seek cancer cells before they grow into tumors. The method involved will remove or replace the broken parts of cells or mechanisms of cells with diminutive molecular sizes biological machines. Then similar type of machines will be used as pumps and medicines will be delivered in the human body wherever that medicine will be needed. But scientists still don't know the physical properties of the intracellular structures and interactions between cells and nanoparticals are also unknown yet. So it is difficult to achieve all the goals of nanomedicine yet.
Scientists are still observing different types of nanoparticals and their applications in medicine. These particles may be carbon-based skeletal type structures for example or micelle like liposomes. These particles are already under observation for drug delivery and also for cosmetic industry. Colloids are the liposome nanoparticles. They are chosen for their solubility and suspension properties and are used in cosmetics, creams, stain resisting clothng and protective coating of capsules. There are other examples of carbon based nanoparticles also such as chitosan and alginate based nanoparticles. These particles are also used in the oral delivery of proteins and various polymers are also under observation for insulin delivery in diabetic patients. Some of the nanoparticles are made from the metals and also from other inorganic materials like phosphates.
MRI and ultrasound give results in biomedical applications of in vivo imaging are enhanced by the nanopartical contrast agents. Such nanoparticles contain the metals which can be altered with respect to their properties. Gold nanoshells are the nanoparticles which are useful in treating the disease of cancer, especially soft tissue tumors. Such nanoparticles have the ability to absorb radiation at a certain wavelength. When these nanoshells enter the cells of tumors, they absorb energy and absorb enough heat to kill cancer cells. Nanoparticles which are positively charged and silver adsorb onto single stranded DNA and are particularly used to detect the DNA. Mostly nanoparticles are used in the treatment of cancer disease. These particles combine the drug delivery and imaging properties together. This makes scientists to visualize the cancer cells that how they react against that particular drug. The main strategy which scientist use, is to target the cancer cells by linking the antigens to the surface of the nanoparticles. Then these nanoparticles detect cell wall characteristics. When these particles detect the specific cells, they enter the cell through specially designed mechanisms and deliver its antigens. When the delivery of the drug succeeds, doctors observe its action on the cancer cells. Through this technique distribution of cancer cells is observed in the body. This technique will allow the doctors to cure the late stage cancers and hard to reach tumors. This technique also makes the life of the drug longer inside a nanoparticle, because in other methods of drugs delivery, drugs diffuse before it starts it action against the tumors.
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