Proteomics is a new branch of biotechnology. Proteomics is the study of the collective proteins produced by a cell or tissue of a person's body. Since proteins structure, function and its concentration play a role in normal functioning of the body. Proteins also responsible for the disease or abnormal conditions of the body, therefore study of these proteins will help in better understanding of the disease and also will help in producing effective pharmaceutical compounds.
Proteome research also help in identifying new drug targets for drug discovery and also novel markers for diagnosis of a condition or disease.
Description of Methodology of Proteomics:
Proteomics study can be divided into three steps.
1. Identifying all the proteins produced in a cell, tissue or an organism.
2. Understanding how these proteins form a network to perform all the biological activities.
3. Identifying the three dimensional structure of these proteins, which will help in understanding where the drugs will interact with the proteins.
1. Collection of samples.
2. separation of proteins
3. Identification of proteins
4. Characterization of proteins.
These are important steps used in the proteomics studies. Detailed explanations are given below:
Sample Collection, Handling and Storage:
All clinical or biological samples along with pathological condition like cancer, heart condition, and neurological condition are collected with detailed medical records to correlate between the condition and results.
Proteins are separated from the sample using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a technique used to separate charged molecules with the help of current. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis separates the proteins depending on its mass and charge. These separated proteins can be isolated for further study.
Protein identification is done using a technique known as mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometer instrument are used, which produces a charged particles stream from the analyzing substance, then the ions are separated depending on their mass-to-charge ratio and helps in identifying the types of ions present in the sample.
In this step structure and how these proteins interact with each other in a cell or biological system are identified. This is done using pure proteins. These pure proteins are then crystallized and X-rays are bombarded on them. X-ray diffraction pattern from the crystallized pure protein are analyzed and protein structure are studied and stored into protein structure data base.
Huge data produced as a result of proteomics research are entered in Proteome Science's proprietary databases and also in public databases. This makes the future reference for further research. Bioinformatics are used to analyze the data for further references.
1. Proteomics can be used to identify new markers for diagnosis.
2. Proteomics can be used to monitor the effect of treatment.
3. Proteomics can be used to locate the proteins which are responsible for the disease condition present in the body.
4. Proteomics can be used to produce more effective pharmaceutical compounds.
5. Proteomics can be used to produce drugs with no or less side effects.
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