Recombinant DNA technology is used to produce DNA segments after different processes joined together. To make a recombinant DNA, different DNA segments are taken and one recombinant DNA molecule is produced. When the recombinant DNA is produced, DNA segment are taken from two different species, due to which new genetic combination is produced which is useful for agriculture, medicine and other fields of science. Like cloning technique, this technique is also used in a woman who is infertile. When this technique is used, new hormones are produced, which have the same biology as the ones from which they are produced.
Recombinant DNA technique got recognition by scientist Peter Lobban. They isolated the DNA segments from the two different species and joined them together and make a recombinant DNA. This recombinant DNA can be inserted in the host cells with already existing DNA to alter the different traits or characteristics in the genes. This technique is different from cloning in the sense that in cloning, identical organism is produced by using the genetic makeup of the organism but in recombinant technique, DNAs are taken from two different organisms. Recombinant is present in the form of a vector and is used in this form further. This vector can be inserted in the plasmid and are used fro medicinal purposes.
Steps Involved in Recombinant DNA technology:-
Before going into the detail of the technique, first have look t the vectors and plasmids. Vectors are the piece of the DNA molecule, which have the ability to replicate independently. Commonly used vectors for the recombinant DNA technology are the plasmids and viral phages. Plasmids are the extra chromosomal structures.
1) A gene is extracted from the DNA molecule and is inserted into the vector.
2) The foreign gene is inserted into the plasmid and is called as recombinant DNA.
3) The vector is then cloned. It is useful to get multiple copies of the vector for the ease of the experiment that if one vector does not work, others can be used for the purpose. Then it is inserted in the host cell to express the proteins.
4) Multiple copies of vectors now can be inserted in different host cells. For example yeast cells, mammalian cells or bacterial cells can use these vectors.
5) The host cell once gets the foreign vector; it will start synthesizing the foreign protein from the recombinant DNA.
6) When we get the recombinant proteins in excess amount, they can be isolated from the host cells and can be purified.
Benefits of Recombinant DNA Technology:-
Recombinant DNA technique is very much useful for detecting and diagnosing the diseases and helps in treating them. Many genetic diseases can be detected with this technique. This technique has also helped in the formation of insulin, growth hormones and other proteins. People can be detected with different types of cancers like breast cancer with this technique. Mutation is the major cause of genetic diseases. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to detect mutations in the gene sequences and making corrections in them. Mapping of genes or transfer of genes from one organism to the other is all made possible by Recombinant DNA technology.
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