The amounts of residential solid wastes are increasing day by day with the fast increasing of population particularly in urban areas. As a result, it creates a serious problem for waste management in city life and deteriorates the quality of life of people with loss of environment and economy. High consumption rate of goods of man speeds up generation of solid waste. The states of solid waste management are worse in under developed or developing country than the developed one. Developed country can spend lots of money for their solid waste treatment and management and they are also able to apply develop technologies that help to better management of the solid waste.
Resource recovery refers to the procedure by which materials still contain useful chemical or physical properties after serving a particular purpose are recycle or reuse for the same or some other purposes, including use as an energy source. The process of resource recovery means the collection, recovery or extraction of recyclable substances from the waste sources for recycling, reuse, generating energy or generating a product suitable for valuable use. Recovered materials are paper, metal, glass, rubber materials, or textiles that can feasibly recycle, have a known recycling possibility, and have been source separated and diverted, have separated from the solid waste source for sale, reuse or use as raw materials, whether or not its need separation from each other or later processing, but does not include substances destined for any use which makes up disposal.
Resource can get from residential solid waste by several ways but some are economically feasible that are acceptable. Resource recovery from the residential solid waste can categorize by the following way -
• Reuse of the materials- Without any alteration of properties
• Materials recovery- Recycle of materials or parts
• Energy recovery- transportable / storable energy recovery (aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion) or direct energy recovery (incineration).
Reuse of materials by used the materials without any change of their properties or just repairing them with easiest processes is most popular and widespread for their trouble-free possibility to use. Use a material more than once, either similar purpose or some other purposes. Reusing, when can do, is preferable to recycling as the item does not need being reprocessed before these can use again. It is more energy and money-saving option. Reuse can do more easily to increase awareness and knowledge. Economic conditions of inhabitants motivate reuses of materials that save money.
The performance of reuse of materials is depending on the understanding of the application rules and users. A single waste material can reuse in many purposes just like that greater than one material can apply in a single purpose. So, we should cautiously choose the best reuses of a waste that best meet the purposes. A number of materials create health hazard so they must avoid. The Food products should keep pathogen free and convenient clean containers and jars.
Reuse of materials ensures the greatest use of product and reduction of materials. It saves money. It also reduces undesirable environmental pollution and decreases the quantity of solid waste landfills.
Recycling is the practice by which materials or solid waste collection, processed or separation due to returned to use or reused in manufacturing, power production, agriculture or other uses in the form of products or raw materials. The main idea of recycling of solid waste is somehow collect or picking up the wastes generated by citizens in their everyday life and then class the waste so that these can use in the production of a new product.
Cardboard, plastics, paper, ferrous metals, nonferrous metals and glass are the main recoverable materials contained in the solid waste of residential area. Recover all of or any of these materials are generally based on local considerations and an economic evaluation.
Solid waste generation increases rapidly with the growth of population of different cities. It deteriorates the urban residential environment and causes for waste a lot of capital. Health hazard is a regular problem due to poor solid waste management. Environmentally safe and friendly resource recovery brings safety to the city dwellers by saving money. Therefore, solid waste can convert into assets by using sustainable resource recovery processes.
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