Bioremediation is the process of environmental biotechnology which uses microorganisms and fungi to clean the environment. Microorganisms such as bacteria play an important role in cleaning the environment. They digest the toxins released from various processes and this breakage of toxins is the usual part of their metabolic activity. These bacteria are present in such places where toxins are abundant and they cannot be removed through any other method. Toxins are just like their food and if bacteria do not get toxins in abundance they will probably die or diminish. Bacteria are also used to remove harmful substances from rivers and seas.
Types of bioremediation:-
Bioremediation has three types and all the types are used to remove contamination from the toxic site or from rivers. The microorganisms which are useful for the bioremediation, take oxygen and other nutrients from soil that is why tiling of the land in places like sediments and sludge is necessary.
This process of bioremediation is also called as natural attenuation. It occurs in the soils and water which are contaminated with toxins. Microorganisms are involved in this type of bioremediation. Usually those contaminated sites are treated which are related with petroleum. As we all know that gas stations have underground tanks system which carries the petrol. If contamination or leakage occurs in these tanks then intrinsic bioremediation helps a lot. Microorganisms play an important role in this type and it is important to take precautionary measures so that the leaked oil does not affect the humans or does not cause pollution in the environment.
In this type of bioremediation, environment is modified by motivating the bacteria used for bioremediation. The experts release oxygen and other nutrients in the soil in which microorganisms are residing. These nutrients and oxygen are in the form of gas or liquid. Due to this the activity of the bacteria and other microorganisms flourishes and they remove contaminants from the environment or water more efficiently.
Sometimes microorganisms are needed to remove particular contaminants from the soil or water. Municipal waste water facilities use this type of bioremediation. This technique is not very successful because it is difficult for the scientists to control the growth of microorganisms for that particular contaminant.
Role of Biotechnology in Bioremediation:-
Biotechnology plays a vital role in the process of bioremediation because it provides natural mechanisms for the removal of contaminants from the environment, from water and soil. Biotechnology mechanisms are applied to bioremediation when the contaminants are composed if industrial wastes. Scientists are making efforts to produce microorganisms through genetic engineering techniques which will have higher metabolic activities and will be able to digest chemicals more efficiently. In situ developments in the bioremediation processes are possibly less in cost and they do not effect the environment in a negative way.
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