Antibodies are the proteins which are present in the immune system of the humans. They help the immune system in identifying any foreign objects whether bacteria, viruses or other pathogens in the body. Antibodies let the immune system create a response against these organisms.
Structure of antibodies:-
As we know that antibodies are the pertinacious structures used in the immune system against the pathogens. There is a small region at the tip of the protein which has binding site. In every antibody, the binding sites vary. This varied region is called as hypervariable region. Every region of the protein or binding site has the ability to bind to a different antigen. It means, due to this variability of binding site to different antigen allows the immune system to recognize many antigens in the body. Unlike antibody which has diversity of binding sites, antigen has unique binding site called as epitope. These epitopes only bind to their corresponding antibody and has the ability to recognize the respective antibody from thousands of molecules of the human body. When the antibody binds to the antigen, then other cells of the immune system become active. They attack that specific antigen and completely destroy it. Antibodies have also this ability that they bind to that part of the pathogen or antigen which has to make infection in the body.
Function of antibody in the Human Body:-
Immune system of the body acts as a defender for the body against various germs which are present in the air or in the food. It does not allow the microorganisms enter the body and if by any chance any pathogen enters the body, it attacks it by producing antibodies. It is not only the microorganisms which attack the body; some foreign objects are also called as antigens which harm the body. When an antibody enters the body, it is recognized by the white blood cells of the immune system. These cells allow the B-lymphocytes to respond to the foreign object and produce antibodies against it.
If one type of antibody produces in the body, it remains there. If an antigen attacks the immune system, then the already existing antibodies will act against it and will block its function. This whole mechanism makes the basis of immunization. Though antibodies are able to block the function of antigens but they cannot completely destroy them. If they have to kill these antigens, then they need help from another source. There are special kinds of cells t-cells which are also called as killer cells. These cells have the ability to completely remove the antigens from the body. T-cells only destroy those antigens, which are tagged by the antibodies or which have caused infection in any type of cells. For example, if a person had suffered from chicken pox in his life, then the anybodies will not allow the antigens of chicken pox to attack the body again. T-cells are also responsible for activating other cell of the immune system to keep themselves from antigens. Other positive point of antibodies is that they are responsible for the activation of a group of proteins called as complement. These proteins are also the part of the immune system and help in killing of pathogens like viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Researchers have found out that antibodies cab recycled to enhance the body's immune system so that they can function against the pathogens. As it is known that antibodies are produced from the white blood cells also known as B-cells. When white blood cells find any antigens in the body or when they show reaction when body is vaccinated then anybodies are activated or newly produced.
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