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Most Recent Environmental Biotechnology Articles.
  • Biodegradable Plastics: Natural versus 'Synthetic'    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Plastics are one of the most widely used non-biodegradable synthetic chemical products. Microbes under stressed environmental conditions can produce natural bioplastics (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs), which are completely degradable. In contrast, there are 'synthetic' bioplastics, which are prepared by mixing chemicals and biological materials. Here, degradation is limited to the contribution of biological matter. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • The Struggle to Fish Out the Dreadful Streptococcus    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Bacterial diseases causing high morbidity and mortality rates are dreaded by all. Pnuemonia, Otitis Media, Meningitis and Bacteremia are associated with drug resistant Streptococcus species. These bacteria spread rapidly and lead to fatal situations. The causal organism Streptococcus needs to be fished out with precision and treatment must be initiated quickly to prevent the spread of the disease. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • A Friend Among Foes: Lactobacillus    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Lactobacillus strain in small numbers act as probiotics and prove helpful to human beings. It enables easy uptake of nutrients, consumption of milk, treating unhealthy conditions and activate the human immune system. Food Industries are the most worried of contamination of good with bad bacteria. In order to maintain quality and take maximum advantage of the potential health benefits bestowed by Lactobacillus, they must be monitored and identified properly. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Bio Fuels: A Green Alternative for Energy Sustainability [PDF]    By: Aditi Mathur

    This article concentrates on need, types, and techniques of production, advantages and disadvantages of bio fuels. It also depicts the trends of use of bio fuel in India and future plans to adopt it as a blend in conventional petroleum fuel. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Searching the Dreadful Yersinia in a Crowd    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Yersinia infection is lethal to human beings. It is one of the most dreadful pathogens. The need is to identify them and initiate the treatment before it is too late. Culture techniques are the best but not rapid. Molecular techniques based on 16S rDNA (rrs) gene analysis are limited by the presence of 6-7 copies of this gene/genome. Many other genes have been employed for identifying Yersinia, however there is no consensus. Comparative genomics has revealed consensus genes with unique properties to search Yersinia in a crowd. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Diagnostic Biomarkers in the Taxonomically Oversized Genus - Clostridium    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    The genus Clostridium is composed of bacteria having great biotechnological and medical significance. The genus encompasses around 110 species with a G+C content ranging from 24-58 mol%. The identification of the Clostridium strains is complicated by the multiple (9-22) copies of 16S rDNA (rrs) (the most commonly used gene for bacterial identification) per genome. Novel genomic approaches reveal biomarkers for easy identification and rapid diagnosis. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Cell to Cell Communication and Social Networking in Plant Pathogenic Bacteria    By: Dr. Namita Das Saha

    It was a common perception that, bacterial cells are primarily selfish individuals, but, in recent past, it has become clear that, they behave like well organized social organisms like us. Such cell to cell networking is called Quorum Sensing. For such communication they employ low molecular weight, diffusible signals and upon achieving a certain concentration (quorum concentration), it triggers certain set of gene expression. Recent findings have emanated that bacteria are not limited to communication within their own species but are capable of understanding interspecific messages also. More to this, more findings are coming up in timeline for quorum sensing and social chit-chat mechanism in fungus and as well other organisms also. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Biotechnological Significance of Biodegradation of Bioplastics    By: Subhasree Ray

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes, where they act as food reserves. Diverse bacteria and fungi produce the enzyme depolymerase to metabolize the PHA. The bio-products generated by PHA depolymerase have important significances, such as biofuels, fuel additives, probiotics, and in pharmaceutical industry, etc. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Potential of Stenotrophomonas for Bioremediation of Recalcitrant Pollutants    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Environmental pollution is caused by heavy use of highly recalcitrant organic compounds -insecticides and pesticides - Classified as priority pollutants by USEPA. Major causes of concern are: (i) Groundwater pollution, (ii) Toxic accumulation in food chain, (iii) Great ecological imbalance, (iv) Carcinogenic nature. Consequently poisoning leads to 2,00,000 deaths annually. Stentrophomonas has the potential for bioremediation of these recalcitrant pollutants. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Bacillus - Industrial Work-Horse of the Microbial World    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Bacillus is well recognized for its ability to produce a wide range of enzymes and bioactive molecules with numerous biotechnological applications. Recent research works on this Industrial Work-Horse of the Microbial World have elucidated a few of its novel and latent talents: (i) Biofuel generator, (ii) Biodegradable plastics producer, and (iii) as Antipathogens. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Quorum Sensing and Bioremediation    By: Jyotsana Prakash

    Biodegradation of organic matter present in the waste water and effluents emanating from domestic and industrial sources is limited by the availability of material to microbes. Biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Bacillus through the phenomenon of quorum sensing promotes rapid biodegradation and bioremediation. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoate Co-polymers From Biowastes    By: Subhasree Ray

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable biopolymers. These can be used to replace petro-plastics. Bacteria can produce PHAs from diverse substrates. In general, bacteria produce polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). PHBs have poor commercial value due to their brittle nature and low strength. Whereas, co-polymers of PHA, have high economic viability, as these can be produced from different biowastes. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • The Battle: Microbes versus Vaccines, Antibiotics and Antipathogens    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes reflects upon their metabolic diversity and ability to evolve rapidly to counter any environmental stress. They are bestowed with a unique arsenal to infect eukaryotic cells leading to the disease condition. Strategies have been developed to fight diseases: (i) vaccines to prevent bacterial attack, (ii) antibiotics to kill bacteria, and (iii) antipathogens, to prevent them from becoming virulent. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Biodiesel Industry Waste: Bane or Boon    By: Vipin Chandra Kalia

    Biodiesel is an efficient substitute for conventional and non-renewable petroleum diesel. It is less polluting and cheaper than petro-diesel. However, for every 10 tonnes of biodiesel produced, 1 tonne of glycerol rich effluent needs to be disposed. Interestingly, the effluent can be metabolized into valued added products such as butanediol, biohydrogen, bioplastics, etc. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Bioenergy and Bioproducts through Bacterial Quorum Sensing    By: Jyotsana Prakash

    A unique bacterial communication system called as Quorum Sensing (QS) operates at high cell densities. QS allows them to express certain phenotypes, such as biofilm formation, which can be exploited for producing value added products - bioenergy and bioproducts from biowastes. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Bioluminescence and Biolighting    By: Divya Narayan

    Bioluminescence is one of the most interesting and visually appealing natural phenomena serving purposes such as communication, camouflage, etc. Biolighting can be regarded as alternate, non-polluting, environmentally-friendly energy >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Biodegradable Plastics: Green Option for Tackling Plastic Pollution    By: Dr. Namita Das Saha

    The biodegradable polymers could be an alternative to the conventional plastic materials. These polymers being biodegradable can be disposed off in safe and ecologically sound manner, through disposal processes (waste management) like composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can form the basis for environmentally preferable, sustainable alternative to current materials which are exclusively based on petroleum feed stocks. These bio-based materials offer value in the sustainability/ life-cycle equation by being a part of the biological carbon cycle and as well are a green option for tackling the plastic pollution >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Acinetobacter sp. - An Acid-tolerant Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria from Lateritic Soils [PDF]    By: Dr. K.Surendra Gopal

    The rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil samples were collected from various lateritic soils in Thrissur district of Kerala and phosphate solubilizing bacteria were isolated on Pikovskaya's agar medium. Under in vitro conditions, the bacterial isolate PMD-7 (Acinetobacter sp.) solubilized 207.2ug/ml of insoluble phosphorus. Its solubilization efficiency in Pikovskaya's agar medium was 247.62%. It grew in the pH range of 4.0 to 7.0 and tolerated upto pH 3.5. However, this new acid-tolerant PSB is the first report from Kerala, which could be a potential biofertilizer for acidic soils of Kerala >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Microbial Biomineralization of Calcium Carbonate    By: Balaram Mohapatra

    Microbial metabolic process leads to production of inorganic substances as biominerals and precipitation of calcium carbonate as biominerals is called microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP). Ureolytic bacterial strains from various habitats are the most promising choice for the process with several applications starting from healing of surface cracks to study of lithology of outer neighbor planets and other bioengineering aspects. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Methanotrophs: As an Environmental Remedy    By: Lal Chand Malav

    Methanotrophic bacteria are inimitable and ubiquitous bacteria that utilize methane as a sole source of carbon and energy from the atmosphere. They are highly specialized group of aerobic bacteria and have a unique capacity for oxidation of certain types of organic pollutants like alkanes, aromatics, halogenated alkenes, etc. Oxidation reactions are initiated by the methane monooxygenases enzyme, which can be expressed by methanotrophs in the absence of copper. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Bioplastics - As Green Alternative to Plastics    By: Sandeep Kumar

    The use of plastics has shown a negative impact on the environment from the aspects of human health and there is need to overcome these effects. This can be achieved with the help of bioplastics which are produced from renewable biomass sources. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Phytoremediation: Super-plants Technology to Clean up the Environment    By: Rohini Bansode

    Toxic heavy metals have led to the contamination of environment and are harmful to the human health. Phytoremediation is the use of green plants and their associated microorganisms, soil amendments and agronomic practices to remove, contain or render harmless environmental contaminants. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Exploration of Uncultured Microorganisms Through Metagenomics    By: Mahajan Mahesh Mohanrao

    The article talks about culture independent approach (metagenomics) that overcome the limitations associated with conventional culture dependent techniques. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals    By: Gajendra Rathod

    Present article describes about the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and sequestration in plants. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Study of Fungal Flora from Higher Termite Soil.    By: Sreeremya Sasi

    Study of fungal flora from higher termite soil collected from different regions of Palakkad district. Termites usually known as white ants have major significance. They have beneficial role and they have the ability to produce methane. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Tank Bottom Sludge- Hazards and Treatment Methods    By: Dani Kate

    This article outlines the various hazardous impacts of tank bottom sludge and the methods that can be used for the effective treatment and disposal of the concerned sludge. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Microalgae: Important Source of Biofuel Production    By: Priti Raj Pandita

    Fossil fuels accounted for 88% of the primary energy consumption, with oil (35% share), coal (29%) and natural gas (24%) as the major fuels, while nuclear energy and hydroelectricity account for 5% and 6% of the total primary energy consumption. Due to these consumption rates there is rapid depletion of fossil fuels which in turn leads to search for alternative sources of energy such as algae. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Application of Genetic Engineering in Bioremediation: Deinococcus Radiodurans    By: Shivani Sharma

    Bioremediation is basically a technique in which micro-organisms are utilized for the management of biological waste. Their metabolism is utilized for the removal of pollutants from the environment. Bioremediation can occur on its own which is natural attenuation or can occur artificially by addition of chemicals spurred on the microbes which is termed as biostimulation. Although not all the heavy >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Bioplastics - A Way Towards Sustainability    By: Balaram Mohapatra

    Over increasing population causing rapid industrialization and more use of petroleum based product which makes our environment unsuitable, less balanced and more toxic. The increasing use of plastics and their accumulation has further contributed to eco-pollution due to its non biodegradability. people now focusing on more reliable and eco friendly use of plastics derived from biological sources. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Plant Immune System: An Insight Towards Their Innate Immunity    By: Sivashanmugam A

    How do plant achieve immunity against Have you ever thought, how do plant achieve immunity against Phytopathogens? How do they achieve systemic immunity without circulatory system and mobile immune cells? This article, is an attempt to provide a bird's eye view to the above stated questions. Phytopathogens are microorganisms which specifically attacks the plants for their survival and .. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Metagenomics: New Challenges Ahead in Molecular Soil Ecology    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    Metagenomics is the culture-independent analysis of a mixture of microbial genomes using an approach based either on expression or on sequencing. This involves isolating DNA from an environmental sample, cloning the DNA into a suitable vector, transforming the clones into a host bacterium and screening the resulting transformants. Two types of screening have been used to identify clones carrying desired traits from metagenomics libraries: sequenced based analysis and functional based analysis. It is the daunting task of understanding the genomics of uncultivated microorganisms or whole environmental genomes with respect to identifying the functions of genes as compared with a well-studied and easily cultivated microorganism. Metagemomics produces a snapshot of the microbial community genome at a specific point in time and space. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Search For Sustainable Sources of Biofuel - Need of the Hour    By: Maitree Baral

    The various sources of biofuels might be an answer to the looming energy crisis. The most important biofuel source holding immense potential is Cellulose methanol from cellulose. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part in 1012 (part per trillion). This is achieved by ionizing the sample with inductively coupled plasma and then using a mass spectrometer to separate and quantify those ions. It is undoubtedly the fastest growing trace element technique available today. It allows determination of elements with atomic mass ranges 7 to 250 and its ability to carry out rapid multi-elements determination at the ultra-trace level have made it very popular in diverse range of applications areas including environment, geochemical, semiconductor, metallurgical, nuclear, chemical, climatic and biotechnology. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Phytoremediation: 'Green Technology' For Extracting the Heavy Metals    By: Priti Raj Pandita

    Phytoremediation is a site remediation strategy, environmental friendly, cost effective, aesthetically pleasing approach. There are different methods for phytoremedation like phytoextraction, Phytovolatilization etc. With the use of genetic engineering it is feasible to manipulate a plant's capacity to tolerate, accumulate, and metabolize pollutants and thus to create the ideal plant for environmen >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Transgenic Approach: Metal Accumulators: Efficient Phytoremediation    By: Gaurav Saxena

    Phytoremediation by the use hyper accumulator plants to modify/remove pollutants from environment is a global concern. Improvement in hyper accumulators by genetic engineering i.e. by modifying properties like metal uptake, transport, accumulation and tolerance to plants will open up the new possibilities and also will greatly expand the efficacy of Phytoremediation. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Role of International Bodies for Biodiversity Conservation    By: Shanky Bhat

    The role of international conservation organizations is a vital one, particularly in terms of brokering international agreements between governments concerned with protecting their national interests. The most far-reaching agreement on biodiversity in recent years is the Convention on Biodiversity, signed by 156 nations at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio in 1992 >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Mer Operon: Key Genes For Mercury Sequestration    By: Gaurav Jaiswal

    Mercury is one of the most toxic element whose contamination can give rise to number of diseases due to its biomagnification. It focuses on operon system found in bacteria which converts toxic form of mercury to less toxic and volatile form. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • RUBISCO- Manipulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism    By: Geetanjali Murari

    Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase (RuBisCO) is an enzyme involved in the Calvin cycle that catalyzes the first major step of carbon fixation. This is the most abundant protein present on Earth. This enzyme can help in sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Emergence of Gas-Phase Biosensors in Biotechnology    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    Since the beginning, detecting chemical compounds has been an important tool for the growth of biological and chemical sciences. The evolution of new-age techniques such as NMR, HPLC, and GLC with enhanced capabilities with respect to reproducibility, precision, and sample handling has shown enormous potential for a sustained progress in analysis. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • The Humming Sounds of Plants and Trees.    By: Geetanjali Murari

    Can the plant talk and communicate with other creatures? This article higlights the new research on the language of plants and how can we hear them. This technology can actually resolve many environmental problems. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • The Emergence of Microbial Biosurfactants and Their Applications    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    Microbial surfactants, called bioemulsifiers, are structural compounds that contain a lipophilic and a hydrophilic moiety inside the same molecule. The hydrophilic group (polar group) is derived from alcohol groups of neural lipids or ester, amino acids or carboxylate group of fatty acids phospholipids(phosphate portions), or carbohydrates of glycolipids. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • The Role of GM Crops to Protect Climate Change    By: Dilruba Peya

    Earth is a sustainable planet which produces life, sustenance, and shelter to billions of its residents, but the climate of the planet is changing and we must also change with that. To continue to get in the advantages of this planet's nourishment we have to discover ways and solutions to grow food that is able to brave the storm of climate change. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Environmental Biotechnology: Role and Scope    By: Dilruba Peya

    While pharmaceutical biotechnology signifies the stunning end of market, environmental uses are particularly more in Cinderella mould. The causes for this are quite obvious. The prospect of a treatment for the many conditions and diseases presently assured by gene therapy and several biotech-oriented medical miracles can possibly touch all of us. Our lives may, quite accurately, be altered. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Developing Trends in Marine Biotechnology    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    The impact and potential of Marine biotechnology, across a wide spectrum of applications ranging from the environment to biomedicines is well-known. Economically, the field of marine biotechnology is still on the improving side. Researchers have proposed discovery programs for certain key areas of marine biotech in order to increase the yield... application of marine bio-products. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Microbiological Indicators: Role in Monitoring Drinking Water Quality    By: Gaurav Saxena

    Water is elixir for life but safe drinking water for mankind is a big challenge of 21st century, because many people's not getting safe and clean water supply and dying of diarrheal disease. So, to encounter this global problem, the potability or suitability to drink water is analyzed by the microbiological examinations which have been globally approved. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Phytoremediation: A Green Technology For Environmental Revitalization    By: Gaurav Saxena

    Introduction Decontaminated environment is one of the major challenge of 21st century. Most of the traditional remedial technologies are more expensive and cause environmental pollution. To encounter this global issue, phytoremediation is one of the low cost and low impact alternative to these traditional technologies. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Advances in Modern Plant Biotechnology    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    Plant biotechnology is categorized as: (1) traditional or the classical plant biotechnology that predominantly dealt with cell cultures that were used in the production of wine, milk products, and antibiotics; (2) modern or present day plant biotechnology that uses functional analysis at gene level. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology in the Poultry Breeding and Farming    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    Since the 1990s, molecular genetics has infused improvements in poultry breeding. Though, the world has consumed egg and meat for substantial time now, it was not until 1992 that the world saw an accelerated consumption of eggs and meat. According to sources from the World Poultry Trends, nearly 85 million tonnes of meat and eggs were consumed in 1992 and in 2000. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • The Impact of Biomass in Sustainable Development Today    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    The expansion and the impact that biomass has had on the industrial sectors worldwide is huge. Developing countries have begun shifting their focus on innovative technologies and key policies pertaining to the option of feedstocks and energy conversion platforms for industrial biotechnology and bioenergy. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Changing face of Agricultural Biotechnology and its Uses    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    Agricultural/Agrifood biotechnology - Technological innovations in agriculture emphasizes on manipulation of cellular and sub-cellular structures of organisms and essential commodities that make the human food system. The manipulation of cells, plant, animal, or microbial, via physical, chemical, or biological methods is known as Agricultural Biotechnology. >> Category: Environmental Biotechnology

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