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  • Deciphering the Phylogenetic Codes    By: Sandhya Anand

    Taxonomy is the detailed study of classification of organisms, including the basis, principles and rules of classification. Among the systematic studies, the most popular and currently employed method in finding the evolutionary relationship among different species is the phylogenetic approach. The article gives a brief on the method and principle behind this. >> Category: Biology
  • Biomechatronics: Its Introduction and Working    By: Muniba Safdar

    What is Biomechatronics? It is an interdisciplinary field of science that incorporates mechanical elements, electronics and biological organisms. It includes the features of mechanics, biology and electronics. Hugh Herr a professor at M.I.T studied about bio-mechatronics. In his studies, he has caused a robotic fish to swim. >> Category: Biology
  • Biomedical Engineering: Its Introduction and Sub-disciplinary Fields    By: Muniba Safdar

    Information about biomedical engineering; its introduction and Sub-disciplines within biomedical engineering. Biomedical engineering is the use of engineering principles and methods to the medical field. Biomedical engineering work is basically about research and development. It crosses a broad range of sub-fields. >> Category: Biology
  • Biologics: A Class of Medication Produced by Recombinant DNA Technology    By: Muniba Safdar

    What is biologics? Information about its composition and Recombinant DNA biologics. Biologics generally refers to biology or to life and living things. It is a class of medication. It includes an extensive range of medicinal products in medicine created by biological processes. Biologics are sequestered from a multiplicity of natural sources such as human, animal, or microorganism. >> Category: Biology
  • The Process of Bacterial Photosynthesis and its Importance    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Bacterial photosynthesis is different from plant photosynthesis. The mechanism of photosynthesis, examples of photosynthetic bacteria and their importance such as in analysis of evolution of photosynthetic systems is discussed. >> Category: Biology
  • Antibodies: Small Warriors of Our Body | Type of Immunoglobulin    By: Richa Choudhary

    One can define antibody as 'antigen binding protein molecule' Antibody molecule consists of four peptide chains. Out of four two are identical light peptide chains of molecular weight 25000 and two are identical heavy chains of molecular weight 50,000 >> Category: Biology
  • Biophotonics: A Combination of Biology and Photonics and its Applications    By: Muniba Safdar

    What is biophotonics? Biophotonics refers to detection, reflection, emission, modification, absorption, and creation of radiation from cells, organisms, biomolecular,tissues, and biomaterials. >> Category: Biology
  • Complete Eradication of Microbial Pathogens: Is It Possible?    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    The efforts taken by us to eliminate pathogens and diseases have been remarkable. We are able to detect pathogens in laboratory by using traditional cultivation and identification methods as well as ultramodern molecular techniques like PCR. We are aware of causative agents of diseases, their mode of action; importance of hygiene and other prophylactic measures. In the past, much therapeutics like antibiotics and effective vaccines were developed to fight the fatal infections like small pox and plague. Methods like pasteurization are being used daily by housewives to get rid of harmful microbes in food and we have hospital facilities to treat infections. But the emergence of new infections, reemergence of old diseases and their pandemic or epidemics are still the serious cause of concern. We do not have effective medicines against pathogens of dental caries or common cold. We are still fighting to control malaria and our medical safeguards are not efficient enough against HIV infections. >> Category: Biology
  • Importance and Examples of Fossil Bacteria    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Bacterial fossils are very important to study Earth's formation, early atmosphere, ancient environment and related evolutionary processes. They provide a basis for creation or genesis of the species. Bacterial fossils are indicators of rhythmic climatic oscillations of past. They show linkage of climatic and evolutionary changes which is evident from fossils found in rock strata; alternate arrangement of different layers of sedimentary rocks and their bacterial fossil contents represents response to cold and hot climate changes during particular time. >> Category: Biology
  • Fossil Bacteria: Paleomicrobiology and Detection of Fossil Age    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    The scientific study of fossils is done in paleontology. Bacterial fossils are microfossils as they are microscopic (less than 1micrometer) and the oldest fossils in the world. The oldest fossils are of bacteria and they are 3.5 billion years old. Radioactive decay is correlated to geological time scale to decide period of the fossil. Life appeared for the first time on the Earth in the form of prokaryotes during Archean eon. Therefore, fossils from this eon are considered as the oldest fossils. >> Category: Biology
  • Breast Cancer Treatment - Molecular and Cellular Basis    By: Shikha Sharma

    Breast cancer is the cancer, which originates from the breast tissue. The etiology of this disease is still under investigation and more causes need to fixed on priority basis. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed threatening cancer among women, accounting for nearly one-third of all cancers diagnosed in women in the United States. >> Category: Biology
  • Technoecosystems and Modern Conservation Strategies    By: Sandhya Anand

    Biodiversity approaches has been focused towards input or resource management rather than processing the outputs in the recent past. Such a technology has its roots from anthropogenic ecosystems such as technoecosystems where technological developments need to be balanced along with the biodiversity. >> Category: Biology
  • Concepts of Productivity: Successive Steps of Productivity in Biology    By: Sandhya Anand

    Unlike the nutrients, energy does not cycle through the ecosystem, instead enters the system and gets used up within the ecosystem. The fixation of this energy into usable forms is called productivity and this is an important factor in conservation methodologies. >> Category: Biology
  • Bacterial Storage of Food    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Bacteria have reserved food material stored in cytoplasm. The reserved food is concentrated polymeric, organic deposits, osmotically inert and also known as cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoplasmic inclusions are found dispersed in the cytoplasm or sometimes enclosed by membrane. The basic requirement of reserved food material as the name itself suggests that they are energy reserves and readily available substrates for metabolic reactions to carry out during stress conditions. >> Category: Biology
  • Signal Transduction in Vision: A Molecular Mechanism    By: Richa Choudhary

    In vertebrate eyes, the light beams enter through the pupil and these light beams are focused on highly organized collection of light sensitive neurons known as retina. >> Category: Biology
  • Bacterial Locomotion - Importance of Bacterial Motility    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Motility confers bacteria an ability to change direction. This is important when bacteria require moving away or towards repellents or attractants respectively. Motile bacteria are effective root colonizers and can swim towards root exudates or other nutrient gradients earlier than nonmotile bacteria. >> Category: Biology
  • Bacterial Contamination - Decontamination Measures    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Bacteria are potential contaminants of various systems like air, water, soil, food and fuels and responsible for undesirable to hazardous effects on these systems. Contaminant bacteria does not constitute normal flora of air, water and soil. >> Category: Biology
  • Circadian Rhythms in Microbes    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Like eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic microorganisms do have internal biological clocks. Time telling mechanism in microbes is similar to circadian rhythm in animals and plants. >> Category: Biology
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation: A Game Between Electron and Proton    By: Richa Choudhary

    The flow of electrons through the membrane bound complexes pump the proton across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This causes production of electochemical gradient across the membrane which helps in synthesis of ATP in mitochondria. >> Category: Biology
  • Stomata and Water Cycle    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Stomata are involved in transpiration which is also an important reaction of water cycle. >> Category: Biology
  • Natural Growth Hormone: IAA (Indole-3-Acetic Acid)    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    IAA or Indole acetic acid is plant growth regulator and growth stimulating hormone produced by rhizobacteria and plants. Chemically, it is heterocyclic compound, a phytohormone or also known as plant auxin. >> Category: Biology
  • Earthy Odor - What Causes the Pleasant Earth Odor After Rain?    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Why do we smell earthy odor after first rain? The pleasant earth odor is produced by the soil bacteria. The scientific explanation behind this phenomena has been discussed here. >> Category: Biology
  • Transmission of Nerve Impulse at Synapse    By: Shikha Sharma

    Synapse is the close proximity of the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cyton of another neuron with a gap of just about 200Å in between. A synapse between an axon and a muscle fibre is called neuromuscular junction. A synapse between an axon and a glandular cell is termed neuroglandular junction. >> Category: Biology
  • The Essence of Biodiversity to the Ecobiological Systems    By: Zandro Cabaral

    This article is about the ecosystem and how is it related to biodiversity. There are different kinds of ecosystem and each of it is distinguished by the difference of their components and players in the cycle. >> Category: Biology
  • Systems Biology - Its Importance and Current Scenario    By: Akash Mukherjee

    This is an article on systems biology, which gives a basic idea of what it is, what it's current scenario is, and how is it important for us from a technology perspective >> Category: Biology
  • Ageing Process: Accompanying Changes and Theories Supporting the Process    By: Shikha Sharma

    Ageing is defined as the process of progressive deterioration with the passage of time, in the structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organism. It finally leads to death. The branch of biology dealing with the study of the processes of ageing is known as 'Gerontology'. There are many theories which have been proposed to explain the causes of ageing. >> Category: Biology
  • The Blood Flukes Called Schistosomes    By: Zandro Cabaral

    A brief article about the 3 blood flukes causing schistosomiasis, pathology, diagnostics and treatment. >> Category: Biology
  • Quorum Sensing- Communication Plan For Microbes    By: Sandhya Anand

    Quorum sensing was discovered in bacterial species as a means of communication. The process has several promising applications in research including drug development and antibiotic production. >> Category: Biology
  • Microalgae Uses in Human Nutrition: For Making Biodiesel and Colorant    By: Padma Kumar

    This article details the different ways in which microalgae is used in human nutrition, and for making biodiesel, natural colorants and perfumes. >> Category: Biology
  • The Versatile Microalgae: Applications, Composition and Examples    By: Padma Kumar

    This article defines the microalgae, its composition and its use in cosmetics, aquaculture and as an animal feed. Microalgae applications, importance, size and examples. >> Category: Biology
  • The Anti-Aging Potential of L-deprenyl    By: Shikha Sharma

    L-deprenyl acts as an antioxidative agent as it can both directly inhibit reactive oxygen species formation by blocking the normal metabolism of biogenic amines and indirectly by activating antioxidant enzyme activity. >> Category: Biology
  • Aging Process Linked to the Brain    By: Shikha Sharma

    Aging is an inevitable process that normally starts at birth, or to be more particular, at conception, includes a general decline in the structural, molecular (including genomic), biochemical and physiological functions of different organs and predominantly brain. >> Category: Biology
  • High Pressure Thin-Layer Chromatography Principles and Practice    By: Debasis Sahu

    Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple, rapid, versatile, sensitive, inexpensive analytical technique for the separation of substances. Whereas the mobile phase is a liquid, containing a single solvent or a mixture of solvents and the stationary phase is an active solid, known as sorbent. It is also known as planar chromatography. TLC can be used both an analytical and a preparative technique. >> Category: Biology
  • Red Cell Enzyme Polymorphisms - Introduction and Concept    By: Shikha Sharma

    A variety of different enzymes and proteins are synthesized in the human body, and the primary amino acid sequence of each of their distinctive polypeptide chains is coded in the DNA of a separate gene locus. Thus there must be large number of so-called 'structural' gene loci in the genetic make-up of every individual. In addition, as a result of mutational events there may occur at any given gene locus a series of different alleles each of which determines a structurally distinct form of the particular polypeptide chain. >> Category: Biology
  • Short Term Memory Loss Or Anterograde Amnesia    By: Debasis Sahu

    The term 'anterograde amnesia' means the short term memory loss disorder. The person is unable to program new information and store them in the brain as new memory. He remembers everything about the incidents that happened before the trauma, which caused the condition but cannot register anything fresh. He fails to remember incidents that happened after that. >> Category: Biology
  • Sources of Biological Variations    By: Shikha Sharma

    Species living on earth today are products of 3 billion or more years of evolutionary process with natural selection operating over such a vast span of time. Infinite variation occurs between sexually produced individuals even when they are closely related. Some of these variations are strongly different like hair and eye color while other variations such as height are imperceptible in gradation. >> Category: Biology
  • Nerve System Networks: Complexity in Humans and Animals    By: Amna Adnan

    Nervous system consists of two types of cells that are neurons and glial cells. These cells have the ability to transmit nerve impulses. >> Category: Biology
  • Diabetes - Types, Pathophysiology and Treatment    By: Shikha Sharma

    Diabetes is a most common disease in many countries including United States and India. It is not a single disease but lead to serious health complications including heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. >> Category: Biology
  • Can Curcumin be an Excellent Source of Anti-Epileptic Drugs?    By: Shikha Sharma

    Epilepsy is believed to be largely associated with the mental dysfunction. Post traumatic epileptogenesis is closely associated with the generation of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). With this idea, curcumin, a potent antioxidant was tested for its anti-epileptic therapeutic efficacy. >> Category: Biology
  • Medicinal Plants: A Boon to Combat Oxidative Stress    By: Shikha Sharma

    Oxidation is the process central to the functioning of many living organisms for the production of energy to fuel their biological processes. These oxidation reactions also result in the production of free radicals. Medicinal plants are a rich source of natural antioxidants. Therefore, antioxidant rich dietary supplement may help in combating free radical induced oxidative stress. >> Category: Biology
  • Experimental Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis    By: Shikha Sharma

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects about 1% of the population globally; females being three times more affected than males. This article reviews the information available on the experimental animal models of arthritis, which share a significant number of clinical and pathological features similar to human RA and are most commonly used for pharmaceutical testing. >> Category: Biology
  • Induction of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy in Animal Model    By: Shikha Sharma

    Information about Animal Model and Post-Traumatic Epilepsy. For years, researchers around the world are using animals as models for inducing human diseases to better understand their pathophysiology and for evaluation of safe and effective therapeutic interventions. >> Category: Biology
  • Glycosylation Alteration Studies: Emphasis on Rheumatoid Arthritis    By: Debasis Sahu

    Among post-translational modifications, glycosylation is the only one that requires structural characterization of the modifying moiety beyond noting its presence. It is well known that over 50% of all mammalian serum proteins and about 80% of cell membrane proteins are glycosylated and that glycans play crucial roles in various biological events. >> Category: Biology
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment: Complementary and Alternative Medicine    By: Shikha Sharma

    Information for people who are depressed with the awkward symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and not finding any way despite the current advancements in medicine. >> Category: Biology
  • Structural Basis of Proteins    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Proteins are biomolecules present in all living cells and play a very important role in its functioning and also its survival. Proteins are made up of linear chains of amino acid molecules, which are linked together by a special bond known as polypeptide bonds. >> Category: Biology
  • Plasma Membrane and Integral Membrane Proteins    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Cells are the basic unit of life. All cells have a common feature known as outer selective permeable membrane called as cell membrane or plasma membrane. Almost all eukaryotic cells contain more complex and complicated system of internal membranes. These internal membranes give rise to membrane covered various compartments within each cell. Cell membranes are mainly composed of lipids and proteins >> Category: Biology
  • Mode of Action of Antibiotics    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Antibiotics are chemical molecules or compounds that specifically targets and kill cells. Antibacterial action generally follows some of the mechanisms such as inhibition or regulation of enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall, nucleic acid synthesis and repair, or protein biosynthesis. Antibiotics target the cell functioning of rapidly dividing cells. >> Category: Biology
  • Neurotransmitters and its types    By: Amna Adnan

    Neurotransmitters are the chemicals which are the source of transmitting nerve impulses from one nerve cell to the other. They have two types that is inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters. >> Category: Biology
  • Apoptosis (or cell suicide) : Process and Types    By: Amna Adnan

    Apoptosis is the programmed cell death or in other words it is also called as cell suicide. Through this way, the unnecessary cells are removed from the body or the cells which cause harm to the body. >> Category: Biology
  • How a Baby Develops Inside Mother's Womb: From an Embryo to a Child    By: Amna Adnan

    This article contains different stages of child's development during the nine months of pregnancy. When the sperm from the male and egg from the female unite, an earliest form of life comes into being that is embryo. >> Category: Biology

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