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Most Recent Biology Articles.
  • An Instant Biochemical Note on Starch    By: Kirti Rani

    Starch is well know biochemical constituents which is processed to produce many of the sugars in processed foods, preparation of toothpaste, stiffening and gluing agent and in paper industry too >> Category: Biology
  • Introductory Note on Silk With Its Properties    By: Kirti Rani

    Silk is a natural protein fiber which is commonly used in textiles industries from the ancient time. The best type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori. >> Category: Biology
  • Biochemical Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin    By: Kirti Rani

    Bovine serum albumin is itself known a industrially important biochemical product which has wider role in various biochemical implications. >> Category: Biology
  • Imperial Role of Essential Amino Acids    By: Kirti Rani

    Essential amino acids are considerably important grwoth metabolic factors which are responsible for normal physiology of human, animals and plants. >> Category: Biology
  • Potent Cancer Fighters: The Role of a Toxic Mushroom    By: Boniface Ndirangu

    The Amanita phalloides (death cap mushroom) resembles common edible mushrooms, yet it has a compound called alpha-amanitin that is rated among the most dangerous poisons found in nature. A new breakthrough mechanism involving the toxin and a cancer fighting antibody has been created so as to kill cancerous cells and yet overlook healthy body cells. >> Category: Biology
  • DNA Tumour Viruses (Hepatitis B, Papilloma and Epstein-Barr Virus)    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The viruses that contain DNA as their genetic material and induce tumour are called DNA tumour viruses; for example, papova viruses (SV40, polyoma- and papilloma- viruses), adenoviruses herpes viruses, poxviruses and hepatitis B virus. SV40, polyoma and adenoviruses are the most widely studied viruses. >> Category: Biology
  • Cryopreservation - Storing a Living Organism at Ultra-Low-Temperature    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    what is Cryopreservation? The in vitro preservation of plant materials at -196 C for a long time using liquid nitrogen is called cryopreservation. Cell suspensions, hybrid protoplasts, pollen grains, seeds and meristem of desired plant races are stored in this medium. Cryoprotective agents are chemicals which protect plant materials from damaging effects of cold storage. >> Category: Biology
  • Introduction to Water Microbiology    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    A large number of microorganisms both saprophytes and pathogens are found in water which fall under the groups bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and nematodes. Several animal viruses are also transmitted through water. >> Category: Biology
  • Classification and Enzymes - Uses and Production of Enzymes    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Enzymes are proteins which catalyse the biochemical reactions in living cells. Chemically they are globular proteins secreted by cells to regulate their metabolic activities. The enzymatic reactions are very specific, i.e. a particular enzyme catalyses only a particular biochemical reaction, but not others. >> Category: Biology
  • Mutations: Suppression or Intergeneric Reversion    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    If the mutational changes occur in a second gene, it eliminates or suppresses a mutant phenotype which is called suppression or intergeneric reversion. This type of suppression has been studied carefully with conditional mutation which develops wild type phenotypes on certain conditions and produces mutant phenotype in other conditions. The major class of this mutation is called suppressor sensitive mutation. >> Category: Biology
  • Microbial Taxonomy - Classification and Identification of Microorganisms    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Classification, nomenclature and identification comprise taxonomy of microorganisms. On the basis of common characters or properties, a set of organism is considered into groups. There are no formal rules to define the taxa. >> Category: Biology
  • Medical and Agricultural Microbiology    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Microbes cause infections resulting in diseases among human and animals.Organic composting, increasing soil fertility, reclamation of alkaline user land and use of biofertilizer and microbial pesticides in agriculture are some of the important areas in which different groups of microorganisms participate. >> Category: Biology
  • Microbes and Environment - Microbes in Biogeochemical Cycles    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Microbes are distributed everywhere i.e. soil, water and air even they are present deep in side the earth as deep sea vents. The microbes play an important role in recycling of biological elements such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. >> Category: Biology
  • Autoradiography - Types of Radiations Used and Measuring Autoradiography    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The use of radioactive radiations to obtain the photographic film of the test material, incorporated with the radioactive tracers, is called autoradiography and the film obtained is called autoradiograph. After development the irradiated areas appear on the film as dark areas corresponding to the distribution of the tracer. >> Category: Biology
  • Types of Centrifugation    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Centrifugation is based on centrifugal forces and the device is called Centrifuge. Basically, it has containers rotated around the central axis with the help of electric motor. Cooling centrifuges, high speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges are available with the different types of rotors i.e. angle head and swinging bucket types. In the angle type rotor, the sample kept at an angle of about 30° to the horizontal whereas in the lat >> Category: Biology
  • Phagocytosis: Defence Mechanism of Body    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The mechanism is related to the defense mechanism of body provided by white blood cells through phagocytosis. The phagocytes are of two types, granulocytes (microphages) and monocytes (macrophages). >> Category: Biology
  • Symbiosis: A Beneficial Association | Symbiotic Association Examples    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Symbiosis is the phenomenon of living together where both the partners are benefited. The microsymbionts derive freshly prepared food from the host plant which lack in soil. The macrosymbionts get certain nutrients from microsymbiont which are not readily available such as trace elements, nitrogen, phosphorous, etc. As a result of interaction of microorganisms with plant roots there may or may not develop symbiotic structure. >> Category: Biology
  • Parasitism Mechanism - Entry and Growth of Pathogens    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Relationships of the parasites with their respective hosts are called parasitism. There are two important processes that play a significant role in parasitism, infection and intoxication. Infection refers to entry of a pathogen into host tissues after transmission, and its growth and reproduction resulting in disease. >> Category: Biology
  • Neuroscience of Sleep - Why do we Sleep?    By: Shalini Balan

    A scientific reason to why we sleep and its need. Sleep is as essential for good and healthy life as we need proper food and other important survival conditions. Sleep basically affects our physical and mental health in many ways. >> Category: Biology
  • Functional Bacterial Groups Related to the Process of Composting    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Composting is a natural process of biodegradation and nutrient recycling. It is slow but gradual fermentation process in which biological components like microorganisms, nematodes or worms, protozoa and variety of insects participate along with abiotic factors like temperature, pH, humidity, salinity and nutrient concentration. Composting process is initiated and carried out by functionally active microorganisms of which about 80% constitute bacteria. >> Category: Biology
  • Bacteria Exhibiting the Property of Diazotrophy    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Atmospheric nitrogen is abundant and vital element essential for growth of all living organisms on the earth. Despite its abundance, it is the most limiting nutrient available for growth of producers because of its inertness and therefore needs to be converted into soluble and assimiable forms such as ammonia, nitrites or nitrates. Conversion of N2 to NH3 is termed as biological nitrogen fixation. Bacteria exhibiting this unique ability are diazotrophic bacteria and the phenomenon of biological fixation of nitrogen is called as diazotrophy. Plants, animals, fungi and yeasts do not fix nitrogen. >> Category: Biology
  • Toxin Induced Pathogenesis by Selected Bacterial Pathogens    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Toxins are one of the important virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. They are produced to induce pathogenesis. Phytotoxins and entomotoxins are considered as important agrochemicals and they are being exploited for commercial production. >> Category: Biology
  • Effects of Nuclear Radiation on Green Plants    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    All living and nonliving components live in the atmosphere full of radiation and there is no place on the earth which is free from atomic radiation. Nuclear radiation is emitted from heavy and radioactive elements such as uranium, radium and radon found in earth's crust or rock strata. Apart from these, radiotherapy procedures, volcanic activity, nuclear weapons, and electric power plants using coal or nuclear energy are some of the major sources of nuclear radiation. >> Category: Biology
  • How do we Name a Bacterium?    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Bionomial nomenclature system is specific for naming a bacteria. It follows simple rules which are obeyed by all researchers for uniformity. >> Category: Biology
  • Bacteria Responsible For Iron Corrosion    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Corrosion is spontaneous electrochemical process that happens with any metal. Rusting or corrosion of iron is the most common example. The process consists of conversion of Fe to Fe+2 (2e-) to Fe+3 (1e-). Electrons produced are used to reduce oxygen. Oxygen reacts with metal via water leading to formation of iron oxides (red) or hydroxides (green) which we term as rust. Only the iron oxides which are formed by iron corrosion are called as rust; oxides of other metals are not referred as rust. >> Category: Biology
  • Iron Requirement of Various Organisms    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Iron is important for growth and vitality of all living things but low solubility is the limiting factor for its availability. Most of the iron is present in oxidized/ferric forms are insoluble which microbes cannot assimilate. So they produce siderophores that bind, solubilize and release iron from host proteins, soil particles or other environments. Chelated free iron form is toxic and hence stored as polyphosphate, ferritins and siderophores for further metabolic use. >> Category: Biology
  • Oxygen Requirements of Different Bacteria    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Oxygen is elemental constituent of water and organic compounds. Obligatory aerobic bacteria are dependent on aerobic respiration for fulfillment of their energetic needs; wherein molecular oxygen functions as terminal electron acceptor or oxidising agent. Anaerobic bacteria do not obtain energy by using molecular oxygen. >> Category: Biology
  • Magnetotaxis and Magnetotactic Bacteria    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Magnetotactic bacteria are important agents of biogeochemical cycling of iron and other elements. Formation of magnetosomes is achieved by biological mechanism that controls accumulation of iron and biomineralization of magnetic crystals. They are functionally required in iron homeostasis, energy conservation and redox cycling. After death cells are no more magnetotactic but magnetosomes remain preserved and deposited as fossils contributing magnetization of sediments. >> Category: Biology
  • Control Mechanisms of Secretion of Classical Hormones    By: Aritri Ghosh

    Classical hormones are secreted from different glands and organs and they are controlled for proper functioning and development of our body. >> Category: Biology
  • Characteristics of the Population    By: Sandhya Anand

    The population is distinctly marked by different characteristics which are unique to the individuals of the population. Major population characteristics which are also the basic parameters needed for ecological studies, there are discussed in this article. >> Category: Biology
  • The Detailed Functions of Gamma Delta T Cells    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    The functions of gamma delta T cells (γδT) are specific according to their location. It is observed that γδT cells express cytotoxic molecules- perforin,granzymes and FAS ligand. Chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 and adhesion molecules are also expressed by γδT cells. These γδT cells are considered as the first line of defense as they exhibit both activated and resting state. >> Category: Biology
  • Gamma Delta T Cells and Their Development    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Gamma Delta T cells are a part of the T cells and they have a distinct T Cell Receptor (TCR) on the surface. The B and T lymphocytes are different from each other cause of their ability to interact with a wide variety of antigens. The TCR and Immunoglobulin help in specific interaction. In gamma delta T cell the T Cell Receptor (TCR) has 1 gamma and 1 delta chain. It was seen that the gamma delta (γδ) chains form another class of recognition structure. >> Category: Biology
  • Cold Adaptation by Phosphate Solubilization and Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria    By: PIYUSH JOSHI

    The bacteria, which are adapted to live in cold environments, are called as Psychotropics or cold tolerant bacteria (Psychrotolerant), and the summary of cold adaptation by the novel Phosphate solubilizating,plant growth promoting bacteria. >> Category: Biology
  • The World of Fungi and Fungal Infections | Laboratory Tests    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    Fungi are saprophytic and parasitic nucleated eukaryotes lacking chlorophyll. They are found in environment as free living organisms; they differ from eukaryotes and hence classified under a separate kingdom. Some fungi reproduce by spreading microscopic spores. These spores are often present in the air, where they can be inhaled or come into contact with the surfaces of the body, mainly skin. >> Category: Biology
  • Xenotransplantaion - A Boon Or Bane (Part 2)    By: Preethi Venkateswaran

    After talking about the major two immunological barriers during xenotransplantation, there is one last one left to talk about which is the Cellular Xenograft Rejection (ACXR.) Apart from the immunological barriers there are microbial, ethical and pathophysiological barriers too. In spite of all these flaws xenotransplantaion is a success and surely a boon to the human society. >> Category: Biology
  • Enzymes Produced by Bacillus Thuringiensis    By: Shekhar C Bisht

    The main biocontrol activity of B. thuringiensis is due to its entomopathogenic potential, different strains in this species have been shown to produce many potential enzymes that could be of great interest in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic bacteria. Applications of these enzymes could lead to decrease the use of chemical pesticides which have usually harmful impact on the environment. >> Category: Biology
  • Ecological Succession - Stages and Processes    By: Sandhya Anand

    Succession is the process of establishment of stable mature communities in an uninhabited area. There are different stages of succession without which the habitat cannot be returned back to natural forms before disturbances. The article describes the stages and processed involved in succession. Essentially it is a never ending process when longer geological time scales are applied. >> Category: Biology
  • The General Characteristics of a Virus    By: Zandro Cabaral

    us is an intracellular organism. It is either an RNA or a DNA. Viruses are transmitted in a lot of routes. Viral infections are usually self-limiting. However, there are some viral infections that must be treated with the use of Antiviral drugs to inhibit their replication and development. >> Category: Biology
  • The Phenomenon of Bioluminescence in Different Organisms    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    The basic need of illuminated environment in marine habitats is accomplished by bioluminescence. Apart from illumination, bioluminescence is used for attracting mate or prey or diverting the predators; it is also used as tool to express aposematism that is to warn off predators for defense. >> Category: Biology
  • Effect of Low Temperature on Bacterial Growth    By: Shekhar C Bisht

    Low temperature can influence the response of a microorganism either directly or indirectly. Direct effects include decreased growth rate, enzyme activities, alteration of cell composition and differential nutritional requirements. Indirect effects are usually observed on the solubility of solute molecules, diffusion of nutrients, osmotic effects on membranes and cell density. >> Category: Biology
  • Phytopathogenic Bacteria - Bacterial Diseases in Plants    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Erwinia, Pseudomonas, Acidovorax, Ralstonia, Xanthomonas, Corynebacterium, Agrobacterium, Xylella, Arthrobacter, Clavibacter, Streptomyces. Bacillus, Clostridium, Rhodococcus, Rhizobacter, Pantoea, Rhizomonas, Serratia, Leifsonia and Sphingomonas are some of the important phytopathogens. Major bacterial diseases of plants include galls, wilts, cankers, rots, leaf spots, fruit deformation, retarded ripening, leaf discoloration, dwarfing and stunted growth. All plant types like cereals, pulses, grasses, shrubs, trees and even medicinal plants are prone to bacterial infections. >> Category: Biology
  • Cold Loving Microorganisms    By: Shekhar C Bisht

    Cold tolerant microorganisms exhibit distinctly different properties than representatives of mesophiles and thermphiles. Microorganism with low temperature optima are generally referred to as psycrophiles (cold loving). Their natural habitats include snow, glacial and sea ice, permafrost soil, ice clouds These organisms have considerable biotechnological potential. >> Category: Biology
  • Ice Plus and Ice Minus Bacteria    By: Shekhar C Bisht

    The 'ice plus' bacteria posses INA protein (Ice nucleation-active protein) found on the outer bacterial wall acts as the nucleating center for ice crystals. This protein located on the outer membrane of these bacteria is responsible for ice nucleation. While 'ice minus' bacteria do not posses Ina proteins and lower the ice nucleation temperature. >> Category: Biology
  • Coral Bacteria - Common Bacterial Diseases    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Polyps as such don't leave alone, they are accompanied by eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms such as fishes, echinoderms, worms, crustaceans, mollusks, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, diatoms, macroalgae, cyanobacteria or blue green algae, bacteria, methanogenic archaea and viruses. Coral and associated living forms constitute a complex system which is termed as holobiont. Their interactions make the coral a unique and very diverse ecosystem on the Earth. Each coral has its specific bacterial community. Photosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria are found to inhabit porous skeletonous structures of corals. Both types of bacteria are able to fix atmospheric and aquatic nitrogen (N2) into utilizable form (ammonia) for polyps. Polyps in absence of nitrogen fixing bacteria would otherwise have been devoid of nitrogen nutrition. Heterotrophic bacteria are also used as food by other organisms like sponges or mollusks of holobiont. >> Category: Biology
  • Driving Forces of Evolution - Microevolution    By: Sandhya Anand

    Evolution is no longer termed as a process which involves large variations between generations. The term microevolution has been coined to refer to the variations between generations. The article gives a brief account of the driving forces of this evolutionary mechanism. >> Category: Biology
  • Microbial Flora of ENT (Ear, nose and throat)    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    Microflora generally consists of saprophytic microbes which are acquired during and after few days of birth of an individual. Bacteria are predominant normal flora organisms. They have an extraordinary ability to attach and colonize epithelial cells, to multiply and establish in human body. Every human being has specific normal flora and its composition is dependent on health status, diet, age and hormonal activities of that individual. Microorganisms establish harmless and beneficial commensalistic and mutualistic associations with human host. >> Category: Biology
  • Green and Purple Sulfur Bacteria    By: Sonali Bhawsar

    H2S produced by sulfur reduction is highly toxic to aquatic flora and fauna, often associated with fish mortality. In waterlogged anaerobic soils such as paddy fields, H2S may damage vegetation. H2S produced by reduction is important source of reducing power to support the growth of H2S aerobic chemoautotrophs or anaerobic photoauto and photoheterotrophs. >> Category: Biology
  • Neem (Azadirachta Indica L.): A Potential Boon For Cancer Treatment    By: Rajkumar Paul

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), a member of the Meliaceae family, is a fast growing tropical evergreen tree with highly branched and stout solid stem. Neem is regarded as 'The Wonder Tree' and 'Nature's Drug Store', because of its paramount pharmacological importance. All parts of the neem tree such as fruits, seeds, roots and leaves may be used for cancer prevention through different mechanism. >> Category: Biology
  • Significance of Keystone Species in Conservation Strategies    By: Sandhya Anand

    The article throws light on the importance of keystone species in ecological research. Recent conservation strategies are shifting focus to conservation and preservation of keystone species. Whether or not such efforts will be fruitful and helps to maintain biodiversity is still speculative. >> Category: Biology
  • Indices of Species Diversity - Part I    By: Sandhya Anand

    Species diversity is one of the most prominent characteristics of community and is the basis of present day conservation approaches. The article presents an overview on the different diversity indices used in ecological studies and their importance. >> Category: Biology

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