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Most Recent DNA Articles.
  • Editing Your Gene - An Outlook on CRISPR Cas9    By: Aastha Acharya

    The fuction of Cas 9 can be executed via the genetic engineering technique to delete or insert the specific DNA fragment which can be used to change the DNA sequence in human embryo and even remove the integrated human viral HIV DNA. This technique can be used not only in adult cells but also in embryo. >> Category: DNA
  • Next Generation Sequencing Techniques: The future of DNA Sequencing    By: Ashutosh IMS

    This article is about the next generation sequencing techniques. What is the purpose of this and what is benefits of next generation sequencing techniques and how is different from older sequencing techniques >> Category: DNA
  • Recombinant Human Activin-A Protein    By: Pooja Sharma

    Human Activin-A is a disulfide-linked homodimer of two beta chains. Activin-A is a member of TGF-beta superfamily with a wide range of biological activities including cell proliferation, differentiation, etc. >> Category: DNA
  • PCR-based GM Diagnostics: Strategies for Detection of Genetically Modified Events    By: Sushmita Singh

    Increasing commercialization of genetically modified events with superior traits worldwide require efficient GM diagnostics so as to ensure a systematic monitoring in accordance with regulatory framework. >> Category: DNA
  • Endogenous Genes: Potential in GM detection    By: Dr. Monika Singh

    Use of endogenous gene as an internal control play a key role in determining reliability and accuracy of testing methods for detection and quantification of a genetically modified organism (GMO). In this article, potential of endogenous genes in GM detection has been highlighted. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Polymerases: Types, Roles and Significance in Biotechnology    By: ILA RUCHIE

    DNA molecules are the troves of genetic information of an organism. DNA is the basis of life and is transferred from parent to offspring's. The DNA content of the parent is doubled by means of replication mechanism aided by a specific enzyme, DNA polymerases. DNA polymerase plays a central role in process of life and carries a weighty responsibility of making an accurate copy of the cell's genome. >> Category: DNA
  • Methods of DNA Shuffling    By: Rohini Bansode

    Information on methods of DNA shuffling and their applications in different areas. Tools to generate recombined genes. Applications and advantages of DNA shuffling. >> Category: DNA
  • Gateway Cloning System - Overview and Benefits    By: Dr. Surender Khatodia

    The Gateway Cloning System, invented and commercialized by Invitrogen since 2000, is a molecular biology method that enables researchers to efficiently transfer DNA-fragments between plasmids >> Category: DNA
  • Effect of Beverages on Human Genome    By: Geetanjali Murari

    The intake of caffeine and alcohol has a relation with the length of the telomere found at the end of DNA. Scientists claims that both the contrasting beverages are associated with the cell growth. This could help in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. >> Category: DNA
  • PrimPol - An Enzyme That Heals DNA    By: Ikksheta Sharma

    PrimPol can heal and repair broken DNA fragments. It shows high specificity and efficiency when replicating damaged DNA strands. >> Category: DNA
  • Gene Cloning in Plasmid Vector    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    The terms recombinant DNA technology, DNA cloning, molecular cloning, or gene cloning all refer to the same process: the transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid (cloning vector). The DNA of interest can then be propagated in a foreign host cell. This technology has been around since the 1970s. Gene cloning has contributed hugely to agricultural and medical research. It has mainly been applied in agriculture to develop resistance to pests and diseases and improve nutritional quality of crops. It has allowed genes and their functions to be studied in much greater detail than was previously possible. >> Category: DNA
  • 16S RRNA Gene: Application in Soil Microbiology    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and understanding the biodiversity of soil is difficult because of the heterogeneity that exists on both local or geological scales. The 16S rRNA is a ribonucleic acid molecule found in the ribosome. The 16S rRNA ribosomal RNA gene sequences of bacteria and achaea have been the primary tools for identifying the populations inhabitating soil and for monitoring microbial community dynamics. Therefore, 16S rRNA gene is the preferred gene target for identification of bacterial species, defining microbial community diversity and establishing phylogenetic relationship between unknown and uncultivated soil microorganisms. >> Category: DNA
  • RNA Editing - Mechanisms, Features and Significance    By: Dr. Suresh Kaushik

    The information flows directly from DNA to protein through the RNA intermediate molecule. But, it has been discovered that the information that is contained in the DNA is not always found in the RNA products used to make proteins. Mitochondria and chloroplast contain the biochemical machinery to alter the sequence of the final transcription product. This process is called RNA editing. The primary benefit of RNA editing could be evolutionary conservation of protein structure. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Fingerprinting of Plants: An Analysis of Various Methods    By: kashika arora

    Large diversity of plants can be studied using genetic markers which may be morphological, biochemical or DNA based. Many DNA markers have been developed and each has different desirable properties. >> Category: DNA
  • IPad vs Microsoft Surface Pro    By: Finley Arthur

    The Microsoft Surface Tablet is coming soon. Will it challenge Apple's iPad? Will people purchase a tablet running Windows? In this article, we will examine the pros and cons of each tablet. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Fingerprinting - Applications and Problems    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. The only difference between people (or any animal) is the order of the base pairs. There are so many millions of base pairs in each person's DNA that every person has a different sequence. Using these sequences, every person could be identified solely by the sequence of their base pairs. However, because there are so many millions of base pairs, the task would be very time-consuming. Instead, scientists are able to use a shorter method, because of repeating patterns in DNA. These patterns do not, however, give an individual 'fingerprint,' but they are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people. Scientists use a small number of sequences of DNA that are known to vary among individuals a great deal, and analyze those to get a certain probability of a match. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA and the Constitution    By: Rebekah marshall

    This article sheds light on the need for reexamination of our current laws, due hugely in part to our scientific advances in DNA. >> Category: DNA
  • What is DNA Dating? (or Gene Pairing Technique)    By: Shalini Balan

    Latest approach in finding their soul mate through specific gene pairing. Gene partner as a complementary matching method. This is a new dating trend, could be the modern version of matching birth astro charts before deciding on life partner. Termed 'DNA Dating', practice is being encouraged by a DNA matchmaking website that may see the end of the compatibility test. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Fingerprinting Introduction and Applications    By: BRIJESH KUMAR SHARMA

    Applications of DNA fingerprinting and its advantages. DNA is located in the cell nucleus and called as nuclear DNA. A small amount of DNA can be found in the mitochondria, where it is called as mitochondrial DNA. DNA has the ability to replicate and make copies of itself. >> Category: DNA
  • Application of DNA in Diagnosis of Different Diseases    By: Aritri Ghosh

    DNA engineering is being applied now a days for the detection of different diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, AIDS etc. >> Category: DNA
  • Structural Protein Motifs - Four Major Regulatory Amino Acid Motifs    By: Aritri Ghosh

    Protein motifs are a cluster of amino acids that attach themselves to the DNA strand and regulate the gene expression. A vast range of specific protein-DNA interactions occur due to the role of four unique and major motifs. Helix-Turn-Helix (HTH), Zinc Finger, Leucine Zipper and Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH). >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Markers - The Tools in Genetic Mapping    By: Sandhya Anand

    DNA markers are vital tools in gene mapping studies. The article provides the type of DNA markers used in genetic mapping along with their features. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Damage and Types of Mutation    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    Although DNA is usually copied faithfully through replication process, sometimes one to many bases can be changed or deleted, thus damaging the DNA and the integrity of the information it carries. >> Category: DNA
  • Pseudogenes - Function and Origin    By: Sandhya Anand

    The article summarizes the origin, location, features and functions of pseudogenes. The pseudogenes were identified during the late 1970s when the function of genes was mapped onto the chromosome locations. They were named pseudogenes since they were thought to have no functionality >> Category: DNA
  • Types of Pseudogenes - Decoding Pseudo Notions    By: Sandhya Anand

    Psudogenes are DNA sequences which are results of one or more mutations which render them non functional. Apart from these minor changes, the sequences are almost identical to functional gene sequences. >> Category: DNA
  • Structure of DNA    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    Conformations of DNA and Types of DNA structures. The structure of the DNA double helix was proposed by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. They received the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1962. This discovery of theirs is considered a major breakthrough in the progress of modern biology. >> Category: DNA
  • Riboswitches - is RNA Controlling the Genes?    By: Sandhya Anand

    Riboswitches are the latest discovery of gene regulation in prokaryotes and have been recently found in eukaryotic systems. The article discusses the origin, discovery,and mechanisms of riboregulation by these non coding mRNAs. >> Category: DNA
  • SELEX- Revolutionizing In-vitro Selection of Aptamers    By: Sandhya Anand

    SELEX is a process used for in vitro selection of aptamers which are highly specific in binding as well as function due to the nucleotide sequence and shape. The article describes the various steps in the process. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Binding Motifs - Part 2    By: Sandhya Anand

    DNA binding motifs serve to bind the transcription factors to the DNA sequence for purposes such as gene expression and regulation. The article gives a brief account of the various motifs. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Binding Motifs - Part 1    By: Sandhya Anand

    Information about Helix Turn Helix Motif and Helix Loop Helix Motif. DNA binding proteins recognize and bind to specific sequences. This binding is supported by the presence of DNA binding motifs which help in positioning the DNA binding sequences in a way so as to facilitate easy and stable binding. The article presents the different types of motifs. >> Category: DNA
  • Techniques of Epigenetic Studies    By: Sandhya Anand

    Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression and regulation which are independent of the DNA sequences. These changes have been a focus for developing new drugs, studying evolutionary ontologies and studying gene regulation mechanisms. This article summarizes the techniques employed in epigenetic studies and their nature. >> Category: DNA
  • Mechanism of Epigenetics    By: Sandhya Anand

    Epigenetics is the occurrence of changes in gene expression independent of the DNA sequence. There are different mechanisms through which the process occur and are used as research tools. The article describes the processes involved in epigenetics. >> Category: DNA
  • C-Value, An Unsolved Paradox?    By: Sandhya Anand

    The C value paradox has been a subject of researchers ever since its discovery. This article attempts to explain the phenomenon and the different theories which has been proposed to explain the mechanism. >> Category: DNA
  • Mutagenesis - Types and Uses    By: Sandhya Anand

    Mutagenesis refers to any fluctuation of the genome of the organisms by physical or chemical mutagens. The different types and their uses and drawbacks are discussed in the article. >> Category: DNA
  • Protein Biosynthesis: Decoding the Code (Part - 2)    By: Richa Choudhary

    This article is the second part of my previous article. In this article, several steps of protein biosynthesis is discussed in detail. >> Category: DNA
  • Protein Biosynthesis: Decoding the Code (Part-1)    By: Richa Choudhary

    This article is about Protein biosynthesis process or translation. In this process the genetic information in mRNA is converted into polypeptide chain having definite sequence of amino acids. >> Category: DNA
  • RNA Interference - The Art of Gene Silencing    By: Pournami Gouthaman

    Small RNA molecules, combined to a RNA induced silencing complex, have the ability to attach to complementary strands of messenger RNA, resulting in the degradation of messenger RNA, blocking its translation and eventually leading to gene silencing. Its targeted gene silencing ability has made it a potential tool in gene therapy and medicine, in addition to other wide applications. >> Category: DNA
  • Transposable Elements - The Story of Jumping Genes    By: Pournami Gouthaman

    Transposable elements or transposons are short DNA fragments that can jump from one location of a genome to another inside a cell. They are mainly three types, based on their gene composition and are categorized according to their mode of transposition. Its ability to induce mutations has made them an important tool for genetic studies, researches advancing for its successful use in gene therapy >> Category: DNA
  • Chain Termination Method: A Generic Method For DNA Sequencing    By: Richa Choudhary

    The term DNA sequencing refers to the determination of precise order of nucleotide in a fragment of DNA. There are two different techniques which are developed simultaneously. One is chain termination method by F. Sanger and A. R. Coulson from UK and the second one is chemical degradation method by A. Maxum and W.Gilbert from USA. >> Category: DNA
  • Nuclear pre-mRna Splicing: The Story of Introns and Exons    By: Richa Choudhary

    Many eukaryotic mRNA are interrupted by noncoding sequences known as introns and coding sequence known as exons. Excision of intron from primary mRNA transcript is known as RNA splicing.Splicing of primary transcript of mRNA is facilitated by Spliceosome. >> Category: DNA
  • Experimental Issues in Microarrays    By: Sandhya Anand

    Microarray experiments involve huge data handling and extensive procedures. The issues associated with the microarray experiments therefore requires careful handling to get the best quality of data. The data quality is the primary concern since it affects the results and the overall analysis. >> Category: DNA
  • Human Cytogenetics - Karyotype    By: Shikha Sharma

    In the last two decades, great advances have been made in the identification of human chromosomes in the karyotype and in the localization of genes. Such studies have had important biological and medical implications in light of the discovery that many congenital diseases and syndromes are related to chromosomal aberrations. Today, human cytogenetics has become a specialized science in itself, the wide-ranging interests of which far exceed the limits of this article. >> Category: DNA
  • Microarrays and Gene Expressions - Principle and Procedure    By: Sandhya Anand

    Microarrays are the latest tools for DNA profiling used in differential gene expression studies, gene function identification studies, gene co-regulation studies, time- course studies, clinical diagnosis, dose-response studies, identification of biomarkers and many more. >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Repair Types: Excision, Postreplication, Recombination and Lesion Removal    By: Shikha Sharma

    DNA Repair Mechanisms: Since replication errors and a variety of mutagens can alter the nucleotide sequence, a microorganism must be able to repair changes in the sequence that might be fatal. DNA is repaired by several different mechanisms besides proofreading by replication enzymes (DNA polymerases can remove an incorrect nucleotide immediately after its addition to the growing end of the chain). >> Category: DNA
  • Gene Knockout in Mice    By: Shikha Sharma

    There are the phenotypes of mice that lack a functional copy of a particular gene. As example, it was noted that mice lacking a functional copy of the p53 gene invariable develops malignant tumors. These animals are called as knockout mice. >> Category: DNA
  • Chromosomal Aberrations and its Types    By: Shikha Sharma

    These are changes involving chromosome morphology, which results in changes in number and sequence of genes without altering ploidy or gene structure. Chromosome aberrations involve breaking of chromosome segments, their loss or union with same (intrachromosomal aberration) or different chromosomes (interchromosomal aberration). >> Category: DNA
  • DNA Extraction:Procedure and Importance in Forensics    By: Amna Adnan

    DNA extraction is the process in which DNA is isolated from other cellular components through certain procedures. It has its applications in forensics. >> Category: DNA
  • Biotechnolgical Techniques For DNA Analysis    By: Amna Adnan

    DNA can be isolated through various techniques of biotechnology like microarrays, DNA sequencing and PCR. >> Category: DNA
  • Identifying a Specific Clone in CDNA and Genomic Library    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    A number of techniques have been developed by scientists for identifying the specific gene of interest in cDNA as well as genomic library. In this article some of the techniques are discussed >> Category: DNA

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