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Most Recent Agriculture Articles.
  • Real-Time PCR - Its Utility    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene expression as a result of physiology, pathophysiology, or development. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Polyploidy in Plants - Its Origine    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    One of the remarkable features of living material is their ability to perpetuate themselves. However, the ever dynamic nature of the surrounding environment has imposed upon plants, much like other organisms, various evolutionary and selective bottlenecks necessitating the adoption of ways and means by organisms to keep their 'race going'. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Soybean Biotechnology: An Outlook    By: RAMESH S.V

    The article provides a bird eye view on soybean biotechnology and molecular biology research and achievements world over. The hugely successful genetic modifications of soybean coupled with genome sequecing project by Department of energy-Joint genome initiative (DOE-JGI) with potential implications for biofuel exploitation of the crop makes it one of the most loved species by crop biotechnologist >> Category: Agriculture
  • Roundup Ready Soybean: A Success Story of Biotechnology and Concerns Associated    By: RAMESH S.V

    Round up Ready soybean is a genetically modified soybean crop accomplished with the aid of biotechnological tools for effective gene isolation from an un-related species and incorporation techniques in to soybean. The article discusses the modus operandi of the transgenic generation, biosafety issues associated with it. >> Category: Agriculture
  • DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) in Molecular Breeding    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    DArT is one of the recently developed molecular techniques and it has only been used in various crops for genetic diversity and mapping studies. it has many advantages and limitation in supporting the plant breeding programme, to bring desired changes in crop plant. >> Category: Agriculture
  • GM Technology - Benefit to Agriculture    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    GM technology has been used to produce a variety of crop plants to date, primarily with 'market-led' traits, some of which have become commercially successful. Developments resulting in commercially produced varieties in countries such as the USA and Canada have centred on increasing shelf-life of fruits and vegetables, conferring resistance to insect pests or viruses, and producing tolerance to specific herbicides. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Transgenic Plants and Safety of Human Health    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Now a days, the new technologies proliferated to solve many problems not only in animals, microbes etc. but also in crop improvement programmes. scientific world is moving in a fast phase to achieve required/ desired targets, in the same time, there is a need of intensive study on advers effects of these technologies on human and animal health. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Use of Biotechnology in Plant Breeding    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Biotechnology is one of the powerful and potential technology for bring desired changes in the characteristics of plants, where there is a limited variation is present. This technology can be make use in plant improvement, which may be involve quality or quantity aspects. This is also helpful to bring improvement across the species barrier. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Speciation Patterns | Sympatric Speciation by Polyploidy    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Speciation is the evolutionary process where in A group of individuals are potential to mate each other and produce viable and fertile off springs. The speciation lead by different patterns. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Plant Breeding and its Goals    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Plant breeding, application of genetic principles to produce plants that are more useful to humans. This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be economically or aesthetically desirable, first by controlling the mating of selected individuals, and then by selecting certain individuals among the progeny. Such processes, repeated over many generations, can change the hereditary makeup and value of a plant population far beyond the natural limits of previously existing populations. This article emphasizes the application of genetic principles to the improvement of plants; the biological factors underlying plant breeding are dealt with in the article heredity. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Synthetic Variety Development    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    A synthetic variety is developed by intercrossing a number of genotypes of known superior combining ability--i.e., genotypes that are known to give superior hybrid performance when crossed in all combinations. (By contrast, a variety developed by mass selection is made up of genotypes bulked together without having undergone preliminary testing to determine their performance in hybrid combination.) Synthetic varieties are known for their hybrid vigour and for their ability to produce usable seed for succeeding seasons. Because of these advantages, synthetic varieties have become increasingly favoured in the growing of many species, such as the forage crops, in which expense prohibits the development or use of hybrid varieties. >> Category: Agriculture
  • SDS-PAGE and its Applications in Crop Improvement    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    SDS-PAGE, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, describes a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensics, genetics and molecular biology to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of the length of a polypeptide chain and its charge). In most proteins, the binding of SDS to the polypeptide chain imparts an even distribution of charge per unit mass, thereby resulting in a fractionation by approximate size during electrophoresis. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Proteome - The Useful in Understanding Plant Insight    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The proteome is the entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism. More specifically, it is the set of expressed proteins in a given type of cells or an organism at a given time under defined conditions. The term is a portmanteau of proteins and genome. The term has been applied to several different types of biological systems. A cellular proteome is the collection of proteins found in a particular cell type under a particular set of environmental conditions such as exposure to hormone stimulation. It can also be useful to consider an organism's complete proteome, which can be conceptualized as the complete set of proteins from all of the various cellular proteomes. This is very roughly the protein equivalent of the genome. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Artificially Induced Mutations    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Breeding has been practiced since the early human civilization and selection was the first method of breeding, adding the criteria of suitability for man's use (e.g. larger seed, better taste, easier harvestability) to those of natural adaptation, fitness and offspring. It has been said, that the ultimate source of all heritable variation to select from are mutations. But such a statement leaves open, where the genes to start with and the genetic code came from. Recombination of genes can provide additional genetic variation, if differences exist not only between various genes, but also in form of alleles of particular genes of prospective recombinants. Such alleles derive from mutations. Using mutants in cross breeding requires no in depth knowledge about mutations, because the mutated trait is the object of desire. But when the mutant trait is not inherited as expected, the breeder may begin to think about the actual mutational event, that led to the mutant phenotype. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Transcriptome - Aventure Into Crop Improvement    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules, including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and other non-coding RNA produced in one or a population of cells. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Background Selection - Genomes    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Background selection refers to selection applied to regions of the genome that are not known to be associated with desired traits. This type of selection is usually referred to in the context of trait introgression. Trait introgression, the process of integrating a trait from one species into another, is a common strategy used for crop improvement. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Gene Pyramiding in Crop Improvement    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The development of molecular genetics and associated technology like MAS has led to the emergence of a new field in plant breeding-Gene pyramiding. Pyramiding entails stacking multiple genes leading to the simultaneous expression of more than one gene in a variety to develop durable resistance expression. Gene pyramiding is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding leading to the development of genetic stocks and precise development of broad spectrum resistance capabilities. The success of gene pyramiding depends upon several critical factors, including the number of genes to be transferred, the distance between the target genes and flanking markers, the number of genotype selected in each breeding generation, the nature of germplasm etc. Innovative tools such as DNA chips, micro arrays, SNPs are making rapid strides, aiming towards assessing the gene functions through genome wide experimental approaches. The power and efficiency of genotyping are expected to improve in the coming decades. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Gas Chromatography and its Applications    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Chromatography, in one of its several forms, is the most commonly used procedure in contemporary chemical analysis and the first configuration of chromatography equipment to be produced in a single composite unit and made commercially available was the gas chromatograph. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Chromosomal Banding Patterns    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Depending upon the type of dye or fluorochrome or the chromosome pretreatment, there can be different types of banding patterns such as G-banding, Q-banding, C-banding, and R-banding. >> Category: Agriculture
  • G-Banding - Its Applications in Cytogenetics    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Chromosomes are G-banded to facilitate the identification of structural abnormalities. Slides are dehydrated, treated with the enzyme trypsin, and then stained. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Farming for the Globe    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Biotechnology in agriculture has two categories: (1)'improvements' to existing livestock and crops, and (2) development of entirely new uses for both animals and plants (Biopharming ) So called 'improvements', include 'input traits' such as crops with extra resistance to insect attack and improved weed control. These 'GM' or 'GMO' crops are modified food crops made more commercially viable, e.g. 'Roundup ready' soya, 'Starlite' corn, or 'Frost-tolerant' tomatoes. Consumers are worried about the safety of their food. Unfortunately we already have cases of compliance failures... By SUNIL KUMAR, S.V. and ANIL KUMAR, S.V. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH)    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) uses fluorescent molecules to vividly paint genes or chromosomes. This technique is particularly useful for gene mapping and for identifying chromosomal abnormalities. >> Category: Agriculture
  • In Situ Hybridization (ISH)    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    In Situ Hybridization (ISH) is a technique that allows for precise localization of a specific segment of nucleic acid within a histologic section. The underlying basis of ISH is that nucleic acids, if preserved adequately within a histologic specimen, can be detected through the application of a complementary strand of nucleic acid to which a reporter molecule is attached. Visualization of the reporter molecule allows localizing DNA or RNA sequences in a heterogeneous cell populations including tissue samples and environmental samples. Riboprobes also allow to localize and assess degree of gene expression. The technique is particularly useful in neuroscience. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Its Applications    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a revolutionary method developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s. PCR is based on using the ability of DNA polymerase to synthesize new strand of DNA complementary to the offered template strand. Because DNA polymerase can add a nucleotide only onto a preexisting 3'-OH group, it needs a primer to which it can add the first nucleotide. This requirement makes it possi. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Electrophoresis - Its Venture Into Agricultural Biology    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. This electrokinetic phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1807 by Reuss (Moscow State University), who noticed that the application of a constant electric field caused clay particles dispersed in water to migrate. It is ultimately caused by the presence of a charged interface between the particle surface and the surrounding fluid. Electrophoresis of positively charged particles (cations) is called cataphoresis, while electrophoresis of negatively charged particles (anions) is called anaphoresis. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Farming in Crop Plants    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Molecular farming (also known as molecular pharming or biopharming) is the use of genetically engineered crops to produce compounds with therapeutic value. These crops will become biological factories used to generate drugs and other difficult or expensive products. The term pharming can be used to describe plant derived pharmaceuticals, but it is more commonly used for products engineered in animals. The issue of genetically modified crops has been around for a number of years and continues to be a controversial subject. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Breeding and Marker-Assisted Selection    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    The process of developing new crop varieties requires many steps and can take almost 25 years. Now, however, applications of agricultural biotechnology have considerably shortened the time it takes to bring them to market. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Biopesticides: Potential Eco Friendly Pest Management Programs    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Biopesticides include all types of agents and products derived from biotic sources, with potential for the control of phytophagous insects, plant diseases and pests of public health importance. These products have been used for pest and disease control for many centuries, but it has been only in recent years that greater attention has been directed toward the discovery and development of natural products, phytochemicals, microbial control agents, antagonistic agents, genetically modified organisms, hormones, pheromones, kairomones and other agents of biological origin. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Microarray Technology - Its Applications in Plant Breeding    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    A DNA microarray (also commonly known as gene chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters). These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample (called target) under high-stringency conditions. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected and quantified by detection of fluorophore-, silver-, or chemiluminescence-labeled targets to determine relative abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target. >> Category: Agriculture
  • RNA Interference - A Revolution in Crop Plants    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    RNA interference RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that inhibits gene expression at the stage of translation or by hindering the transcription of specific genes. RNAi targets include RNA from viruses and transposons (significant for some forms of innate immune response), and also plays a role in regulating development and genome maintenance. Small interfering RNA strands (siRNA) are key to the RNAi process, and have complementary nucleotide sequences to the targeted RNA strand. Specific RNAi pathway proteins are guided by the siRNA to the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA), where they 'cleave' the target, breaking it down into smaller portions that can no longer be translated into protein. A type of RNA transcribed from the genome itself, microRNA (miRNA), works in the same way. >> Category: Agriculture
  • DNA Chips For Fasten the Crop Improvement    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    It is widely believed that thousands of genes and their products (i.e., RNA and proteins) in a given living organism function in a complicated and orchestrated way that creates the mystery of life. However, traditional methods in molecular biology generally work on a 'one gene in one experiment' basis, which means that the throughput is very limited and the 'whole picture' of gene function is hard to obtain. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Genetic Use Restriction Technology (GURT) in Crop Plants.    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    In nature, the expression of genes is regulated by several factors, which may be internal to the organism (e.g. proteins or other molecules resulting from the metabolism of the organism itself) or external (e.g. climatic factors). Modern biotechnology can also be used to regulate the expression of genes that are, for instance, not desirable at a certain stage of crop development. Methods that regulate gene expression are called Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs)[1]. GURTs are a specific domestication of the regulation of gene expression that occurs naturally in any organism. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Compost Tea: An Organic Additive For Plant Health    By: Sunita Gaind

    Compost tea is a liquid compost prepared by brewing the 'compost extract' (made by suspending stable and mature compost in water) with some microbial nutrient source such as sugars, proteins, oat meal, soybean meal, and/or humic acids at a constant temperature >> Category: Agriculture
  • Correlation and Path Analysis in Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.)    By: Sharad V Pawar

    The phenotypic correlation coefficient and path coefficient analysis in F2 Generation of cross CNHPT- 1 x RHC-1488 of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)showed a Significant positive association of seed cotton yield per plant with plant height, number of bolls per plant, average boll weight and ginning pert centage . path analysis indicated that number of bolls per plant and average boll weight had direct effect on seed cotton yield. Thus maximum emphasis for selection of better genotypes should be given to number bolls per plant and average boll weight and also to number of sympodia per plant and plant height. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Quality Testing of the Compost    By: surender singh

    Recently due to surge in area of organic farming, the demand for compost has increased significantly. Before 2006, due to lack of quality control measures, the market was flooded with poor quality compost and other organic manure. Finally in 2006, government has notified amendment in Fertilizer Control Order to include city compost and vermicompost in order to improve the quality of these inputs. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Effect of Deleterious Rhizosphere Microorganisms in Presence of HCN    By: Shruti agrawal

    The saprophytic microflora of the rhizosphere includes both deleterious and beneficial elements have the potential to influence the plant growth and yield, significantly. Their deleterious activities include alterations of the supply of water, ions and plant growth substances by changing root functions or limiting their growth. The beneficial bacteria affect plant growth positively by promoting the availability and uptake of mineral nutrients, provision of plant-growth substances as well as suppression of deleterious rhizosphere microorganisms. Deleterious rhizosphere microorganisms (DRMO) are the minor pathogenic rhizosphere microorganisms that affect plants by their metabolites without parasitizing plant tissue. These include deleterious rhizobacteria and rhizofungi. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Functional Foods    By: Sunita Gaind

    Functional foods may be whole, fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods. They are defined as any food or food ingredients that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients present in it. Traditional nutrients refer to vitamins and minerals. Functional foods don't differ from conventional food, in appearance and are consumed as part of usual diet >> Category: Agriculture
  • Mycoherbicides: Weeds-killing Fungi    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Many fungi of native origin are pathogenic to specific species of weeds. Such fungi are used to kill the weeds selectively and eliminate them from the area. These weeds-killing fungi are called mycoherbicides. eg. [i]Phytopthora palmivora [/i]is used to control the weed [i]Morrenia odorata.[/i] >> Category: Agriculture
  • Azolla: A Green Manure    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Azolla is a free floating freshwater fern. The plant body consists of crowded mass-like leaves on a branched fragile stem and submerged roots.The leaves are arranged in two alternate rows. The leaf is triangular or polygonal in shape. It has an upper lobe called aerial lobe and a lower lobe called submerged lobe. The ventral surface of the aerial lobe bears mucilage cavities harbouring the blue green algae, Anabaena azollae. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Biosyntheis of Cytokinin    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Cytokinins are degradation products of DNA. They are made up of adenine nucleus and a furfural ring. This basic structure is known as 6- furfuryl aminopurine. Cytokinins stimulate cell division and enlargement of cells. The deficiency of cytokinins results in stunted growth in plants. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Mushroom Ingredients and Advantages - The Edible Fungi    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Mushrooms are the fast growing basidiomycetous fungi which produce fleshy fruit bodies. However, in general the word 'mushrooms' denotes fruit bodies of such fungi. The mushrooms may be button- like or fan- like or umbrella shaped. They are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. So they are consumed as energy rich food. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Fungi as Single Cell Protein    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Dried biomass of certain fungi is consumed as a protein source in human food and animal feed. Such fungal biomass is termed fungal protein or mycoprotein. A few yeasts and moulds are being consumed as SCPs. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Hybridized Plants from Different Species Using Genetic Engineering    By: Smyl Smyl

    Crossing the Species Barrier in Plants - Genetic engineering has made it now possible to hybridise plants from different species >> Category: Agriculture
  • Fermentation Process in Popular Oriental Foods    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Article explains the process of fermentation in common oriental foods like Tempeh, Soy sauce, Natto and Miso. Mycoproteins, marketed in some foreign countries under the name Quorn, is essentially the mycelium of Fusarium graminerarum grown in continuous culture in a medium containing glucose, ammonium salts and a few growth factors. It is essential to reduce the level of RNA which is about 10% on mycelial dry weight to below the levels likely to lead to kidney- stone formation or gout. This can be achieved by mild heating prior to filtration which activates the RNAses and leads to RNA reduction. Such products contains 44% of protein and is high in 'fiber' contents. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Predaceous Fungi Types (Nematophagous Fungi)    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The predaceous fungi are also termed as Nematophagous fungi. They are of three main types on the basis of ecological habitat: a. Nematode trapping fungi, b. Endoparasitic fungi, c. egg parasites. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Development of Genetically Modified Rice and its Possible Hazards    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the key development of genetically modified rice, key concepts associated with its development, uses and possible hazards of using it. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Genetically Modified Salt Tolerant Wheat    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the latest development in the production of salt resistant wheat varieties through employing biotechnological methodologies and tools. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Blue Green Algae - Bio Fertilizer    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    Blue-green algae are photoautotrophic, prokaryotic algae. They are free living creatures and also known as Cyanobacteria. It fixes the atmospheric nitrogen in moist soils. So BGA has been recommended as a biofertilizer. >> Category: Agriculture
  • BT Cotton, Merits and Expected Demerits    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of Bt. cotton in agricultural perspective. Bt. Cotton has been grown over large areas of the world. Firstly, it was grown in US and then was introduced to Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, South Africa, Australia and China and then it was introduced all over the world, gradually. >> Category: Agriculture
  • Tissue Culture - A Significant Biotechnological Vista    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article focuses on the technological aspects of tissue culture and highlights how it actually works. Tissue culture is a major technique in biotechnology regarding to the production of plants on a large scale with specific desirable traits among whole population with no variation. This technique involves culturing of a small piece of plant in aseptic in vitro conditions on a special culture media, comprising over nutrients and plant hormones (auxin and cytokinin) into a full mature plant. >> Category: Agriculture

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