Nitrogen (N) is a significant macronutrient utilized by plants for its growth and development. It is a major limiting factor in agriculture system. Plants can utilize nitrogen either by biological nitrogen fixation or naturally (lighting and thundering) during rainy season. AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene response factor) is an important super family involved in stress signaling, floral meristem as well as in floral development. In addition to this, it is known that the AP2/ERF gene family was also involved in Nitrogen Utilizing Efficiency (NUE).
Human Activin-A is a disulfide-linked homodimer of two beta chains. Activin-A is a member of TGF-beta superfamily with a wide range of biological activities including cell proliferation, differentiation, etc.