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Author: Shikha Sharma

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City: New Delhi | State: New Delhi

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Articles by Shikha Sharma:
  • Breast Cancer Treatment - Molecular and Cellular Basis ( 3673 reads)   

    Breast cancer is the cancer, which originates from the breast tissue. The etiology of this disease is still under investigation and more causes need to fixed on priority basis. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed threatening cancer among women, accounting for nearly one-third of all cancers diagnosed in women in the United States. - Category: Biology
  • Proteomics - A Promising Approach of Biotechnology ( 2962 reads)   

    The advent of large-scale DNA sequencing has transformed biological research in a short span of time. With the advancement in the discovery of most human genes, the next necessity is to explore the key molecules (proteins) responsible for biological problems so as to achieve an in-depth knowledge of complex biological processes. In this article, the crucial contribution of proteomics to our understanding of biology and medicine, through the global analysis of gene products, is discussed. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Solid-Phase Oligonucleotide Synthesis ( 5714 reads)   

    One of the experimental techniques that played a key part in the rapid development of genetic engineering is the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides of defined structure. The chemistry of deoxyoligonucleotide synthesis has been the subject of study for many years. Currently, the phosphoramidite method of chemical DNA synthesis is the procedure of choice. Chemical synthesis takes place in the 3'-5' direction (reverse of the biological polymerization direction). - Category: Biotech Research
  • Transmission of Nerve Impulse at Synapse ( 32182 reads)   

    Synapse is the close proximity of the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cyton of another neuron with a gap of just about 200Å in between. A synapse between an axon and a muscle fibre is called neuromuscular junction. A synapse between an axon and a glandular cell is termed neuroglandular junction. - Category: Biology
  • The Plant Hormone Ethylene and its Physiological Effects ( 12411 reads)   

    Apart from the nutritional and genetic factors, growth and differentiation of plants depend on some more important hormonal factors, which regulate the distribution and fate of nutrients in different organs (or plants) and the final form of plant body. A group of plant hormones including auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, abscisic acid are presently known to regulate growth. - Category: Agriculture
  • Ageing Process: Accompanying Changes and Theories Supporting the Process ( 5546 reads)   

    Ageing is defined as the process of progressive deterioration with the passage of time, in the structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organism. It finally leads to death. The branch of biology dealing with the study of the processes of ageing is known as 'Gerontology'. There are many theories which have been proposed to explain the causes of ageing. - Category: Biology
  • Common Causes of Hemorrhoids ( 4431 reads)   

    What causes hemorrhoids is an accepted concern asked by endless bodies afflicted with hemorrhoids (or piles). The most common observation through which most people ascertain that they have hemorrhoids is the appearance of blood in the toilet bowl. Although the exact causes underlying hemorrhoids is still unknown, studies have accepted that a cardinal of altered things are accompanying to the account of hemorrhoids. - Category: Healthcare
  • Human Cytogenetics - Karyotype ( 5244 reads)   

    In the last two decades, great advances have been made in the identification of human chromosomes in the karyotype and in the localization of genes. Such studies have had important biological and medical implications in light of the discovery that many congenital diseases and syndromes are related to chromosomal aberrations. Today, human cytogenetics has become a specialized science in itself, the wide-ranging interests of which far exceed the limits of this article. - Category: DNA
  • DNA Repair Types: Excision, Postreplication, Recombination and Lesion Removal ( 14331 reads)   

    DNA Repair Mechanisms: Since replication errors and a variety of mutagens can alter the nucleotide sequence, a microorganism must be able to repair changes in the sequence that might be fatal. DNA is repaired by several different mechanisms besides proofreading by replication enzymes (DNA polymerases can remove an incorrect nucleotide immediately after its addition to the growing end of the chain). - Category: DNA
  • Genetic Engineering Extended the Shelf-life of Fruits ( 12662 reads)   

    Tremendous progress has been made through various techniques of genetic engineering, one of them is to improve the shelf life of the fruits. Fruit ripening is an active process characterized by increased respiration accompanied by a rapid increase in ethylene synthesis. - Category: Applications
  • Herbicide Resistance for Weeds | Strategies for Glyphosate Resistance ( 5918 reads)   

    Glyphosate is a glycine derivative and acts as a broad spectrum herbicide and is effective against 76 of the world's worst 78 weeds. Weeds are unwanted and useless plants that grow along with the crop plants. Weeds compete with the crops for light and nutrients besides harboring various pathogens - Category: Biotech Research
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus: HIV Discovery and Immunological Aspects ( 2837 reads)   

    With the advent of 1980s, a new immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been recognized and the same has been found to affect many populations worldwide and killing many of them. Then hundreds of scientists around the world started looking for the cause of this dreaded disease. clear. - Category: Biotech Research
  • DNA Fingerprinting: Infallible Criminal Evidence and its Applications ( 7414 reads)   

    The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. Each and every person has a different sequence owing to the presence of millions of base pairs in each person's DNA. These sequences are responsible for the identification of a person. However, because there are so many millions of base pairs, scientists use a shorter method, based on repeating patterns in DNA. - Category: Genetics
  • The Anti-Aging Potential of L-deprenyl ( 4006 reads)   

    L-deprenyl acts as an antioxidative agent as it can both directly inhibit reactive oxygen species formation by blocking the normal metabolism of biogenic amines and indirectly by activating antioxidant enzyme activity. - Category: Biology
  • Aging Process Linked to the Brain ( 4396 reads)   

    Aging is an inevitable process that normally starts at birth, or to be more particular, at conception, includes a general decline in the structural, molecular (including genomic), biochemical and physiological functions of different organs and predominantly brain. - Category: Biology
  • Becoming Post-Human : Genetic engineering ( 4448 reads)   

    Genetic engineering (GE) on germinal tissues is the ability to change one's genes in a way that his/her offspring will be affected. This can be done in the early stages of development with current knowledge. Fortunately, attitudes are changing and recently the first genetically-engineered babies were born, though the technique used involved changing a small amount of mitochondrial DNA. - Category: Issues
  • Gene Knockout in Mice ( 4473 reads)   

    There are the phenotypes of mice that lack a functional copy of a particular gene. As example, it was noted that mice lacking a functional copy of the p53 gene invariable develops malignant tumors. These animals are called as knockout mice. - Category: DNA
  • Gas Chromatography - Principles and Practice ( 20974 reads)   

    Gas Chromatography was originally suggested by Martin and Synge (1941). It is basically a separation technique (liquid or solid) in which the compounds of a vaporized sample are separated and fractionated as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in column. - Category: Others
  • Chromosomal Aberrations and its Types ( 31176 reads)   

    These are changes involving chromosome morphology, which results in changes in number and sequence of genes without altering ploidy or gene structure. Chromosome aberrations involve breaking of chromosome segments, their loss or union with same (intrachromosomal aberration) or different chromosomes (interchromosomal aberration). - Category: DNA
  • Advancements in Biotechnology - At a Glance ( 12819 reads)   

    Biotechnology as the name indicates is the assemblage of technology in science of biology. Modern Biotechnology initiated with the discovery of double helical structure of the DNA. Subsequent investigation that helped in unraveling the process of inheritance pattern provided impetus to biotechnological research. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Ribozymes: Molecular Scissors For Genetic Manipulations ( 4227 reads)   

    Ribozymes are the RNA molecules that like enzymes (protein) are capable of catalyzing a biological reaction and are also called molecular scissors. Ribozymes catalyze a particular reaction either by the hydrolysis of one of their own phosphodiester bonds or by hydrolysis of bonds in other RNA. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Insect Resistance - Current Perspectives in Research ( 7335 reads)   

    It is estimated that about 15% of the world crops yield is lost due to insects. The damage is mainly caused by insect larvae and to some extent by adult insects. Initially, only the chemical pesticides are used to control the insect pests. But there are various drawbacks associated with its use. So keeping all these facts in view, scientists are working in search of new biotech alternatives. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Red Cell Enzyme Polymorphisms - Introduction and Concept ( 3506 reads)   

    A variety of different enzymes and proteins are synthesized in the human body, and the primary amino acid sequence of each of their distinctive polypeptide chains is coded in the DNA of a separate gene locus. Thus there must be large number of so-called 'structural' gene loci in the genetic make-up of every individual. In addition, as a result of mutational events there may occur at any given gene locus a series of different alleles each of which determines a structurally distinct form of the particular polypeptide chain. - Category: Biology
  • Biodegradable Polymers - Production, Advantages and Drawbacks ( 28102 reads)   

    Due to the industrial revolution, many chemical compounds are synthesized, which are of great use for human being. But these are unknowns for the environment. Plastic is one of the few newly synthesized chemical compounds that utilize synthetic polymers like polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene in its manufacture. Plastics are widely used in world in daily life, all over the world. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Sources of Biological Variations ( 7433 reads)   

    Species living on earth today are products of 3 billion or more years of evolutionary process with natural selection operating over such a vast span of time. Infinite variation occurs between sexually produced individuals even when they are closely related. Some of these variations are strongly different like hair and eye color while other variations such as height are imperceptible in gradation. - Category: Biology
  • ABO Blood Grouping - Methods and Procedures ( 33448 reads)   

    In forensic science, blood typing is one of the preliminary tests, which is done to exclude some suspected sources of bloodstains. Although this test doesn't clearly indicate the suspect involved because many people share the same blood type. ABO blood grouping system is the most widely known and medically important blood type because of its importance in transfusion medicine. - Category: Others
  • Biological Degradation of Xenobiotics ( 24485 reads)   

    Xenobiotics are man-made chemical compounds that are very difficult to degrade. These compounds are made by synthetic organic chemicals and are stranger to the biosphere. They accumulate in the environment and cause harmful effects on the living system. Xenobiotics include chemically synthesized compounds such as pesticides, polyethylene, polystyrene & PVC. - Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Diabetes - Types, Pathophysiology and Treatment ( 4617 reads)   

    Diabetes is a most common disease in many countries including United States and India. It is not a single disease but lead to serious health complications including heart disease, kidney failure and blindness. - Category: Biology
  • Reporter Genes - Indicators of Transformation ( 20680 reads)   

    A reporter or marker gene is a gene, which produces a specific phenotype, in turn enables the differentiation of the cells possessing this particular gene from those without this gene. Hence, the transformed cells can be selected easily among the thousands of non-transformed cells. Reporter genes are an invaluable tool to track and study another associated gene in cell culture, animals and plants. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Enzyme Immobilization - Methods and Applications ( 32670 reads)   

    Enzyme immobilization is one of the most promising approaches for exploiting enzyme-based processes in biotransformation, diagnostics, pharmaceutical and food industries. Several hundred of enzymes have been immobilized in a variety of forms including penicillin G acylase, lipases, proteases, invertase, etc. and are being currently used as catalysts in various large scale processes. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Antisense Technology - A Breakthrough Research ( 12581 reads)   

    Antisense technology offers almost unlimited scope for the development of new methods of drug design. It is one of the most approved approaches among several others, for inactivating a single chosen gene. It has wide applications in crop improvement, treatment of genetic disorders, viral resistance, gene regulation etc. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Can Curcumin be an Excellent Source of Anti-Epileptic Drugs? ( 6117 reads)   

    Epilepsy is believed to be largely associated with the mental dysfunction. Post traumatic epileptogenesis is closely associated with the generation of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). With this idea, curcumin, a potent antioxidant was tested for its anti-epileptic therapeutic efficacy. - Category: Biology
  • Medicinal Plants: A Boon to Combat Oxidative Stress ( 3878 reads)   

    Oxidation is the process central to the functioning of many living organisms for the production of energy to fuel their biological processes. These oxidation reactions also result in the production of free radicals. Medicinal plants are a rich source of natural antioxidants. Therefore, antioxidant rich dietary supplement may help in combating free radical induced oxidative stress. - Category: Biology
  • Experimental Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis ( 6288 reads)   

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects about 1% of the population globally; females being three times more affected than males. This article reviews the information available on the experimental animal models of arthritis, which share a significant number of clinical and pathological features similar to human RA and are most commonly used for pharmaceutical testing. - Category: Biology
  • Induction of Post-Traumatic Epilepsy in Animal Model ( 4124 reads)   

    Information about Animal Model and Post-Traumatic Epilepsy. For years, researchers around the world are using animals as models for inducing human diseases to better understand their pathophysiology and for evaluation of safe and effective therapeutic interventions. - Category: Biology
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment: Complementary and Alternative Medicine ( 3667 reads)   

    Information for people who are depressed with the awkward symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and not finding any way despite the current advancements in medicine. - Category: Biology
  • Autoimmune Diseases: Challenges in the Treatment ( 10632 reads)   

    We are going to discuss some treatment procedures of autoimmune diseases with their advantages and limitations. Autoimmune diseases (AID) like AIDS occur when the body's immune system recognize itself as non-self and acts against it as foreign particle or pathogen. - Category: Healthcare
  • Pathophysiology of Post Traumatic Epilepsy: Treatment and Side Effects ( 4957 reads)   

    This article is intended to provide a brief review of the basic pathophysiology underlying the pathogenesis of post-traumatic epilepsy with special emphasis on the current treatment modalities available with their possible side-effects on the quality of human health and the urgent need to search for key anti-epileptic molecules. - Category: Healthcare
  • Biotechnology- An Excellent Hub of Career Opportunity and Advancements ( 8680 reads)   

    Biotechnology is a coveted interdisciplinary, rather multidisciplinary field which has its own charm, and is also dependent on the information and techniques from outside the arena of biology.. - Category: Careers

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