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  • Food Preservation Techniques [PDF]    By: Palshikar L.S.

    Food can be preserved by applying three principles and different methods like thermal processing, heat removal, addition of different chemicals , by using radiations. >> Category: Others
  • Producers Companies in India    By: Chandan Kumar Rai

    This article is about formation of producer companies in India. A producer company is a hybrid between a private limited company and a cooperative society. >> Category: Others
  • Xeno-Estrogens: A Misfortune of Modern Civilization    By: Dr. Vipin Kumar Gupta

    This article summarizes hormonally active agents found in our day to day life. Its types, sources, potential mechanism of action, health effects and avoidance tips are discussed here. >> Category: Others
  • Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Mobile Screens    By: Aastha Acharya

    It is observed that our daily used mobile phones carry many pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus. Though S. aureus , is a commensal organism, its occurrence is due to the fact that it can survive for several months in dry surface like mobile phones. >> Category: Others
  • Adopting Good Dairy Farming Practices: Need of the Hour    By: Dr. H. R. Meena

    Good Agricultural Practices for dairy farmers is about implementing comprehensive practices on dairy farms collectively called Good Dairy Farming Practice (GDFPs). These practices need to ensure that the milk and milk products produced are safe and suitable for their intended use, and also that the dairy farm enterprise is viable into the future, from the economic, social, culture and environmental perspectives. Since, dairy farmers are in the practice of producing food for human consumption, they must have confidence in the production of safety and quality of the milk. >> Category: Others
  • Synthesis and Significance of Non-Protein Amino Acids    By: Divya Narayan

    Non-Protein Amino (NPAAs) are those amino acids which are not coded for by DNA (not present in genetic code). These amino acids possess great significance in health, nutrition, and overall metabolism >> Category: Others
  • Biochromography - Ink Synthesized from Natural Sources    By: Divya Narayan

    Synthetic ink contains chemicals which can result in health and environmental hazards. Biochromography takes into account naturally sourced ink, resulting in minimal damage to health as well as being eco-friendly. >> Category: Others
  • Polyamines Metabolism in Response to Abiotic stress    By: Jalpesh Patel

    Stress is external condition that adversely affect on plant growth, development and productivity. The negative impact of living factors and non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment is known as Biotic stress and Abiotic stress respectively. The major factors of abiotic stress are high temperature, low temperature, water stress, water lodging, various salt, oxidative, deficiency of nutrients, excess of heavy metals etc. >> Category: Others
  • Performance of Crop Insurance in Rainfed Regions- The case of Maharashtra    By: Suresh A

    Crop insurance is considered as an effective risk transfer mechanism. In India, crop insurance has a long history in its various forms. However, the penetration of the crop insurance schemes is low, and therefore, its effectiveness in protecting the farmers during stress is limited. This issue is serious in case of rainfed farming systems, which are prone to large extent of risk and uncertainty. In this article, an attempt is made to analyze the performance of various crops insurance schemes for Maharashtra, one of the regions reported to be having large extent of farm distress. The study reveals that the coverage of crop insurance in terms of number of farmers and crops covered is limited, with respect to National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), modified NAIS and Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS). The paper calls for accelerated efforts to enhance the effectiveness of the crop insurance. >> Category: Others
  • Xenobiotic Compounds and Their Types    By: Rohini Bansode

    Present article describes about the xenobiotic compounds and types of recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds. >> Category: Others
  • Animal Cell Culture Media : Natural and Artificial Media    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Animal cell culture can be described as in vitro maintenance and propagation of animal cells using a suitable nutrient medium. Culturing is a process of growing animal cells artificially. The most important and essential step in animal cell culture is selecting appropriate growth medium for invitro cultivation. >> Category: Others
  • BUILDING HOPE : Regeneration by using Nature's platform    By: Nazish Mustafa

    The establishment of a bioartificial heart under the banner of nature and technology by turning the cadaveric perfused acellular scaffold with intact extracellular matrix and heart chamber geometry into a live, complex and biocompatible heart with the help of natural platform has opened the new turns of tissue engineering. >> Category: Others
  • Alternative Biochemistry - Nucleic Acids and Blood Pigments    By: Divya Narayan

    There are various aspects of biochemistry which are speculated to be scientifically valid. However, these aspects do not have credible scientific evidence backing them, and are, therefore, known as 'hypothetical' types of biochemistry. Alternative Biochemistry includes the study of the alternative building blocks of life, such as non-carbon life, non-water solvents, oxygen alternatives, etc. >> Category: Others
  • Ginseng - An Overview of its Health Profile    By: Divya Narayan

    Ginseng is one of the 11 species of plants belonging to the Panax genus. Ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant having fleshy roots. >> Category: Others
  • Synesthesia - The Union of Sensations    By: Divya Narayan

    Synesthesia is not a disease or an illness. It cannot be acquired or learned from any sources. It is a naturally occurring unique neurological condition or a phenomenon or an anomaly in which the experience of one sensation has an involuntary and cognitive effect on the experience of another sensation through a specific sensory pathway. >> Category: Others
  • Keeping Gladiolus Spikes Fresh For Longer Time    By: Dr. Ganesh B Kadam

    In various flower and decoration arrangements gladiolus is prime cut flower but its very important to keep them fresh for long duration. To keep gladiolus fresh and at presentable form it requires ample clean water and heavy nutrients in vase solutions so that each floret on spike remains open till end. >> Category: Others
  • RNA-Interference (RNAi) : History, Mechanism and Applications    By: Priyanka Chaudhary

    The term transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) and post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) are highly effective methods in gene silencing. Post transcriptional gene silencing results from sequence specific mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm without any specific changes in transcription of the respective gene in nucleus. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) and post transcriptional gene >> Category: Others
  • Is Loss of Hairs ... Loss of Life or Health?    By: Rose 13

    Hairs on human body show the beauty of a person. The number of hairs on the body of a human varies from person to person. Some peoples have long and thick hairs and some others have short and thin hairs. Some times in the life of an individual loss his/ her hairs due to several reasons. Many factors affects on the health of the hairs.Heart diseases are diseases which have diseases related to heart and blood vessels. There are many types of heart diseases like Coronary heart disease , Hypertensive heart disease, Cardiomyopathy, Cor pulmonale, Heart failure, Cardiac dysrhythmias etc.Loss of hairs linked with the heart diseases.The biological link in loss of hair and chronic heart disease is that there may be cause of elevated level of male hormones. According to researchers, in the scalp the density of male hormones like testosterone are high, this high level associated with increased risk of blood clotting. In the females the pattern is same, in increase in male hormones associated with increased risk of diabetes, obesity, blood pressure and cholesterol which all links with heart disease. >> Category: Others
  • Pickling Process - Preserving Foods    By: Shanky Bhat

    Pickling is the process of preserving foods in brine or vinegar or a combination of the two. The method using both salt and vinegar calls for a short brining period before the vinegar is added. >> Category: Others
  • Resource Recovery From Residential Solid Wastes    By: Dilruba Peya

    Solid waste generation increases rapidly with the growth of population of different cities. It deteriorates the urban residential environment and causes for waste a lot of capital. Health hazard is a regular problem due to poor solid waste management. Environmentally safe and friendly resource recovery brings safety to the city dwellers by saving money. >> Category: Others
  • Glycoconjugated Aroma Compounds - Structure, Analysis and Occurrence in Plants    By: Gayathri Raghavan

    The extraction of monoterpene alcohols from rose petals 25 years ago opened a new area of flavor research. Scientists have conducted a plethora of experiments on glycosides and glycosidical aroma compounds. Today, flavorless glycosides that represent the accumulation form of aroma compounds are found in plant tissues and fruits. >> Category: Others
  • Gene Tagging - An Approach Towards Molecular Cloning.    By: Geetanjali Murari

    The gene tags have evolved the technique of molecular cloning. The article depicts the mechanism, merits and utilities of molecular markers and gene tagging. >> Category: Others
  • Vaccine Design - Immunological Bioinformatics    By: Geetanjali Murari

    The bioinformatics tools can help us in designing vaccines. Usually, designing of vaccine require a time period of 5-15 years but bioinformatics can bring this timeline down to 1-2 years. This article depicts the methos of developing epitope based subunit vaccine. >> Category: Others
  • SAS - Statistical Tool For Life | CDISC    By: Geetanjali Murari

    The software which help in the access, manipulation, analysis and compilation of the clinical data. It mainly include 2 main keywords- data keyword for access and manipulation and proc keyword for analysis and representation. The article also defines the standard format for the submission of common technical document to the Regulatory Authority such as FDA. >> Category: Others
  • Cloning: The Pros and Cons    By: Dilruba Peya

    When the first cloned animal, Dolly, beat the news, the most eyes popped-out in complete disbelief. Cloning was only the matter of scientific discussion few years ago and no one yet imagined it would soon turn into a reality. Ever since it became a prospect, pros and cons of cloning have been passionately debated over on ethical, moral and technical grounds. >> Category: Others
  • Silver Nanoparticles: Toxic or Not    By: Dilruba Peya

    The scientists want to discover if silver nanoparticles, well-known for its bacteria-fighting ability, successfully support against bacteria found in waste water treatment plants. The materials enter sewage systems directly through the washing of cloths and hands after people have handled or managed the nanotechnology-enhanced products. Those products include clothing, bandages, car wax, cosmetics >> Category: Others
  • Xenobiotic and Interaction with Ecosystem    By: Shanky Bhat

    Xenobiotics are synthesized chemically organic compounds of which most do not occur in nature (Schlegel, 1995). Xenobiotics can be defined as the compounds that are foreign to a living organism. Xenobiotics include pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and so on. Most of which are substituted hydrocarbons, phenyl carbonates, and similar compounds. Some of these substances of which great quantities are applied to the crops and soil are very recalcitrant and are degraded very slowly or not at all. >> Category: Others
  • Surgery, Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Followed by Tumor Immunotherapy?    By: Dynah Luo

    On December 21 version of Science, tumor immunotherapy was ranked as one of the six most promising scientific fields in 2013. Science said it is possible to get positive result by using like two different immunotherapys regimens to anti-cancer in clinical trials in 2013. >> Category: Others
  • The Next Six Anti-aging Technologies in Near Future    By: Dynah Luo

    If prove to be available, these technologies could start a new era for us to against aging. >> Category: Others
  • Antifungal Activity of Organotitanium (IV) and Organozirconium (IV)    By: Saurabh Dave

    A new class of unsymmetrical organotitanium (IV) and organozirconium (IV) complexes of biologically potent ligands have been prepared by the microwave irradiations. The resulting new complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, molecular weight determination and spectral studies incl >> Category: Others
  • Effect of Microgravity on Signal Transduction Pathways in Cell Cytoskeleton    By: Shivani Sharma

    Many of the investigators have reported and demonstrated in their results that this complex network of fibers is sensitive to quite a few environmental factors such as microgravity and altered gravitational forces [49].The cytoskeleton is basically a complex network of fibres that is found to be sensitive to environmental factors including microgravity and altered gravitational forces. >> Category: Others
  • Genome-Wide Association Study: SNPs to Disease Associations    By: Chandra Kala

    Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is a high throughput study which involves analysis of genetic variants between different study groups to find associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to Phenotype or trait. GWA study is mainly associated with researches which focus on finding SNPs associations with phenotypes such as Diseases and Drug effects. >> Category: Others
  • Green Nanaotechnology Vs Nanoscience and Nanolibrary    By: Kirti Rani

    Green nanotechnology is the latest eco-friendly clean nano-technologies to minimize potential environmental and human health crises associated with the manufacture and use of nanotechnology products. >> Category: Others
  • Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) as Nutritionally Enriched Pulse    By: Kirti Rani

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is commonly well known market pulse for the human consumption due to its high nutritional value. >> Category: Others
  • The Modern Technology For the Industrial Centrifuge    By: Dr. Andrew Drucker

    In recent few days, a lot of biotechnology specialists have asked me, which is the best centrifuge for Industry and laboratory use. For that reason, I have studied a lot of centrifuges specification, made in Europe, USA, ASIA and one of the biggest bio technology producing country-India. >> Category: Others
  • Molecular Markers as Size and Sequence Variants    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    Molecular markers have great potential to assist plant breeders in development of improved varieties by complementing phenotypic selection. This module provides an overview of molecular markers. Technology used for genotyping is rapidly changing, requiring us to think beyond markers as bands on a gel. >> Category: Others
  • Which Country is the Best Industrial Centifuge Producer?    By: Dr. Andrew Drucker

    I will recommend you the most powerful, modern centrifuges like as PENNWALT AS-16, 26. In my opinion, India is getting powerful for centrifuge industries. >> Category: Others
  • Induced Mutations - Basis For Beneficial Application in Plant Breeding    By: SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.

    There were a number of futile attempts to link the successful performance of crop plant mutants to the mutagen and the applied dose by which they were originally induced, but there are hardly any investigations about the molecular changes of genes in the genomes of improved mutant cultivars, and only few concerning specific crop plant mutants. >> Category: Others
  • Heat Shock Proteins : Properties and Applications    By: Shalini Balan

    Heat shock proteins are those functional proteins which are present in all the cells under normal conditions. But when they are exposed to high levels of temperature suddenly or some other stress like altered pH and oxygen deprivation, infection, inflammation, exercise, exposure of the cell to toxins then heat shock proteins bind to the proteins and prevent them from getting denatured. >> Category: Others
  • Applications of Tissue Culture    By: Shivika Bhatnagar

    The in vitro culture of plant cells or tissues in artificial medium is said to be plant tissue culture. It has many applications in crop improvement, preservation, breeding and in industries. >> Category: Others
  • Impact of Global Warming and its Prevention    By: Shalini Balan

    We are hearing a lot of news about global warming and climate change these days. What is this? Green house gases are nothing but the gases added to the atmosphere by the human beings. Which are primarily carbon dioxide, ozone chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane tend to warm up the earth's atmosphere. >> Category: Others
  • Basic Biotechnology Concepts and Applications    By: Syed Amir Manzoor

    The article highlights the key sciences and concepts involved in biotechnological methodologies and covers some of the basic application of biotechnology. >> Category: Others
  • Monoclonal Antibodies: Production, Antibody Therapy and Uses    By: Shalini Balan

    What is monoclonal antibodies and their production and uses. Antibodies are formed in the body when the body encounters foreign agents like viruses, bacteria and other germs. Soon after that our natural immune system produces antibodies that bind to the antigens and destroy them. >> Category: Others
  • Stillbirth Causes - Diagnosis of Stillbirths and Future Pregnancy Implications    By: Shalini Balan

    A stillbirth occurs when a fetus has died in the uterus during pregnancy. In medical terms a still birth occurs when a fetus, of mid-second trimester to full term gestational age, which has died in the womb or during labour or delivery, exits the maternal body. >> Category: Others
  • Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes    By: Shalini Balan

    The production of cancer cells in our body and latest development to suppress or arrest tumor formation. >> Category: Others
  • Vaccine Industry in India    By: Pugazhenthi Ethiraj

    The article provides market insights about the vaccine industry in India. >> Category: Others
  • Physico-Chemical Properties of Petroleum Polluted Soil    By: Hardik pathak

    In the last few years, large numbers of ecosystems have changed by the significant influence of human activity. Most of the petroleum goes in the ecosystem via leakage of coastal oil refineries. This fact evoked the interest of scientists to investigate the oil distribution system and its fate in the environment, especially the soil environment. Bioremediation of these contaminants is a prerequisi >> Category: Others
  • Proteasomes - The Dooms Day Chamber For Proteins    By: Sandhya Anand

    Proteasomes are involved in protein degradation and a variety of other cellular processes. The article brings out the roles and importance of proteasomes. >> Category: Others
  • Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria    By: zoha kaukab S.A

    Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria are able to survive and divide in presence of Antibiotics. They occur either by spontaneous mutations or by overuse of antibiotics in the field of agriculture and medicine. Antibiotic resistant genes can be transferred between bacteria by conjigation. Multidrug Resistant organisms are resistant to many antibiotics example: MRSA.Overuse of antibiotics must be avoided >> Category: Others
  • Importance of Polyploids | Applications of Polyploidy    By: Sandhya Anand

    Polyploidy has been found to play significant role in evolution and has its applications in various fields. The article describes the importance and applications of polyploidy. >> Category: Others

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