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  • Preparing Y3 Medium For Culturing Plants in Vitro    By: Alyssa Almazan

    Different types of media and established protocols are available for in vitro culture of plant embryos. Typical of these media are Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, N6 medium and White's medium. >> Category: Others
  • Signal Transduction - Basic Mechanisms and Types of Receptors.    By: Sandhya Anand

    The article describes the components of the signal transduction pathways and the major types of receptors involved in signal transduction. >> Category: Others
  • Biodegradation of Xenobiotic Compounds    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    Role of hepatic enzymes and oxygenases in the degradation of xenobiotic compounds. Xenobiotic compounds are those that are found in living systems or in the environment that are not natural to them. Substances that are present in abnormally high concentrations can also be considered xenobiotic. >> Category: Others
  • Protein Microarrays - Designed For Decoding Protein Functions.    By: Sandhya Anand

    Microarrays have been the latest tools in genomics in identification of genetic variations. The method is now extrapolated to proteomics for identifying the protein interactions. The article gives a brief overview of the technology and types in protein microarrays. >> Category: Others
  • Role of Bioinformatics in Biology    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    How Bioinformatics helps manage Biological data. It uses techniques of Information Technology to understand and manipulate biological data. Tools and methods usually applied in computational technology are adapted to manage, store and analyze biological data. >> Category: Others
  • Microbiology of the Gastro Intestinal Tract    By: Kanya Sasi

    Microbial flora of the G.I tact includes both normal and pathogenic microorganisms.This articles provides an insight on both. >> Category: Others
  • Information About Trinitrophenol (Picric Acid)    By: Lakshmi K Sugavanam

    2,4,6-trinitrophenol, better known as picric acid, has a well-developed chemistry. Picric acid, (also known as TNP) is a yellow crystalline solid. It is mainly used for explosive, in steel etching and textiles industries. Exposure to picric acid leads to irritation of eyes & skin, sensitization dermatitis, yellow-stained hair, skin, lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), myalgia, anuria, polyuria >> Category: Others
  • Models For Population Growth    By: Sandhya Anand

    Population models form an essential tool to study the dynamics and characteristics of a population. They aim to represent the changes to the population structure over time in mathematical equations. All models, mathematical or otherwise are abstract representations of reality. According to Levins, modeling is a balancing act between three major parameters, generality, realism and precision. >> Category: Others
  • Ecological Succession - Causes and Types    By: Sandhya Anand

    Succession in ecological systems refer to the changes in ecosystem which result in formation and stabilization of the community in an area after disturbance. The article details the causes and types of succession found in natural ecosystems. >> Category: Others
  • Downstream Processing in Biotech Industry    By: Pournami Gouthaman

    Any industrial process will require a sequence of unit operations that are involved in the extraction, separation, concentration and purification of the desired product. Biotech productions, with its wide application in important areas like research, pharmaceuticals, food, etc. demands for highly purified form of products. This has popularized the role and importance of downstream processing, >> Category: Others
  • Biotechnology Boom - A Global Perspective    By: Pournami Gouthaman

    The rapid growth of biotechnology research and studies and the gradual mushrooming of small and large biotech clusters in different nations around the world is not only an intentional effort to be world leaders in the novel technology, but also an indirect tryout to boost national economy. Inspite of the extensive applications, its unpredictable nature has led to massive upheaval around the globe. >> Category: Others
  • How to Do a Meta Analysis in Biological Research? Part II    By: Sandhya Anand

    Meta analysis studies efficiently analyze the effects of different studies of similar nature. However selection of studies, parameters to be analyzed and methods of analysis should be carefully done so as to give the best results. The article gives a brief guideline to the approach in biological research. >> Category: Others
  • Meta Analysis Studies in Biology- An Introduction - Part I    By: Sandhya Anand

    The term Meta-analysis is the most recent and prominent among the statistical analyses. But why exactly it is needed and what is its significance? The article gives an insight into the process and describes the significance. >> Category: Others
  • Use of Mathematical Models in Biology    By: Sandhya Anand

    A model tries to accurately represent the reality. It is a simpler approach to understanding the basic concepts about the real situation and facilitates interpretation of data based on the relations between individual variables of the system. >> Category: Others
  • Methods in Determining Exact Amino Acid Sequence in Protein    By: Zandro Cabaral

    the article is about the methods and steps in breaking down protein to determine the amino acid sequence. >> Category: Others
  • HCV - A Mystery To Physicians    By: Anupriya Ramasamy

    This peculiar virus do not show any symptoms in affected people.Not all the people are affected by the same type of HCV. In advanced cases only symptoms can be seen and finally resultsin liver cancer. >> Category: Others
  • Viruses as Oncogenes and How They Cause Cancer    By: Zandro Cabaral

    Normal cells have strict growth control. They only in a specific and exact number of times with exact timing, depending on their location in the body. >> Category: Others
  • What is Biolistics?    By: Padma Kumar

    This article explains biolistics as a method of genetic transformation, its uses and advantages. Biolistics is a wholesome word for particle bombardment. In other words, it is an acronym for biological ballistics. >> Category: Others
  • Biotechnology as a Science and its Advantages    By: Amna Adnan

    Biotechnology is the branch of science in which living organisms are used for industrial and experimental purposes. It has many advantages. >> Category: Others
  • Gas Chromatography - Principles and Practice    By: Shikha Sharma

    Gas Chromatography was originally suggested by Martin and Synge (1941). It is basically a separation technique (liquid or solid) in which the compounds of a vaporized sample are separated and fractionated as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in column. >> Category: Others
  • ABO Blood Grouping - Methods and Procedures    By: Shikha Sharma

    In forensic science, blood typing is one of the preliminary tests, which is done to exclude some suspected sources of bloodstains. Although this test doesn't clearly indicate the suspect involved because many people share the same blood type. ABO blood grouping system is the most widely known and medically important blood type because of its importance in transfusion medicine. >> Category: Others
  • Role Of Thyroid Hormones    By: Amna Adnan

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the development of vertebrates but also in the maturation. In homeostasis, the thyroid gland also plays a crucial role. >> Category: Others
  • Patterns of Inheritance: Genetic Disorders    By: Amna Adnan

    genetic disorders are caused due to the dis-functioning of certain genes. If the genes do not play the proper function they result in damages and diseases. >> Category: Others
  • Biological Functions of Proteins    By: Amna Adnan

    Proteins are the basic functional units of the body. They have various types and have various biological functions. >> Category: Others
  • Uses of Restriction Enzymes in Biotechnology    By: Amna Adnan

    Restriction enzymes are the types of enzymes which have the ability to cut DNA molecule into small fragments. >> Category: Others
  • Role of Biotechnology in Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.    By: Amna Adnan

    Parkinson's disease is caused due to the disorder in dopaminergenic neurons. Biotech products are playing an important role in treating this disease. >> Category: Others
  • Metabolomics: Applications, Methodology and Constraints    By: Padma Kumar

    In this article we explain the meaning of metabolomics, its applications, the different methodologies employed like metabolic profiling and metabolic fingerprinting, the analytical methods used and the constraints in metabolomic research. >> Category: Others
  • Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) - A Protein Separation Technique    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography is used to separate proteins with difference in hydrophobicity. This technique is ideally used as intermediate step in a purification process or to capture specific protein. The separation is based on the reversible interaction between the protein and the hydrophobic surface of a chromatographic medium. >> Category: Others
  • What is Bioinstrumentation - Common Applications    By: Padma Kumar

    An overview of bioinstrumentation including its application in diverse areas such as agriculture, botany, and cellular and molecular biology especially with reference to microarrays, sequencing technologies, and lab automation technologies. >> Category: Others
  • Purifying Technique of Biomolecule Protein    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    To know about the working mechanism of a protein, it is very much essential to know about its amino acid sequence and also their nature. Once the purification of a protein is completed, then it is very easy to determine the amino acid sequence. Proteins are purified using appropriate purifying techniques. >> Category: Others
  • Biosensors - Immunosensors, Biochip and Bioreporter    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    A gene based biosensor is used to monitor and optimize bioremediation of some of the complex chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, toluene and also carcinogens. A university researcher is testing the effectiveness of genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens in degrading the contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. >> Category: Others
  • Characteristics and Applications of Biosensors    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Technically speaking biosensor is a probe that integrates biological components with an electronic component so that we can get a measurable signal. Biological components may include a whole bacterial cell or biological products such as antibody or an enzyme. >> Category: Others
  • Progression of Transgenics: Some Early Path-breaking Research Efforts--Part 1    By: Padma Kumar

    This article describes F Sanger and H.Tuppy's work on elucidating the first amino acid sequence; JD Watson and FHC Crick's DNA double helix model and Kornberg's discovery of DNA polymerase >> Category: Others
  • Progression of Transgenics: Some Early Path-breaking Research Efforts--Part 2    By: Padma Kumar

    This article deals with Isolation of RNA polymerase; Discovery of reverse transcriptase and Introduction of DNA into cells by calcium dependent method developed by M. Mandel and A.Higa (Calcium dependent bacteriophage DNA infection) >> Category: Others
  • Issues and Benefits of Human Cloning Technique    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Human cloning can be defined as creating a genetically identical copy of a human or a cell or tissue. There are many types of human cloning such as therapeutic cloning, reproductive cloning and replacement cloning. >> Category: Others
  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a technique used to produce cloned cells. In this procedure that is in somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus from a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte. This transfer helps in reprogramming of an enucleated oocyte into an embryonic cell. >> Category: Others
  • Ion Exchange Chromatography: A Biotechnology Technique    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Ion exchange chromatography is used for separating proteins with different charge and this gives a very high resolution separation with high sample loading capacity. The separation of proteins is based on the reversible interactions between a charged chromatographic medium and with an oppositely charged protein molecule. >> Category: Others
  • Maintenance of Seed Stock and Large Scale Culture of Cell Lines    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    A number of cell lines both finite and continuous are developed from human tissues as well as other animal tissues. Continuous cell lines are developed originally from tumor tissues. Cell lines are characterized before preserving or distributing them for further research work. A cell line can multiply and divide to form seed stock and also working (distribution) stock. >> Category: Others
  • Three Phase Protein Purification Strategies    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    The three phase purification strategy has been used in simple laboratory purification to large or industrial scale production. This three phase purification system is also used to purify large scale production of pharmaceutical compounds or biomolecules such as monoclonal antibodies or any recombinant enzymes. >> Category: Others
  • Plasmid and Bacteriophage λ as Cloning Vectors    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Many types or kinds of cloning vectors are used for the transfer of gene of interest into the desired tissue or cell. Some of the examples for vectors used in recombinant DNA technology are plasmids, phagemids, cosmids, shuttle vectors and much more. >> Category: Others
  • Physiological and Chemical Properties of Animal Cell Culture Media    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    The ideal animal cell culture medium is expected to possess certain physiological and chemical properties such as pH, oxygen, carbon dioxide, buffering, osmolality, viscosity, temperature in such as way that it should support growth and proliferation of cultured animal cells. >> Category: Others
  • Hybridoma Technology - A Biotechnology Technique    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Hybridoma technology is used to produce a hybrid cell. These hybrid cells are produced by fusing B-lymphocyte with tumour cell and they are called as myeloma cells. Thus these hybrid cells have got the ability to produce antibodies due to the B-lymphocyte genetic material and also capacity to divide indefinitely in the culture due to the presence of tumour cell >> Category: Others
  • Clonal Growth of Animal Cells in Semisolid Culture Media    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Animal cell lines like HeLa cells and L-cells, and also normal cells which are transformed by viruses can grow and proliferate to form colonies in soft agar-based media. Most of the normal cells cannot grow in this media except some type of cells like cartilage cells. Isolation of clones is very easy, if they are cultured in semisolid media. >> Category: Others
  • Applications of Animal Cell Culture Technique    By: Nidhi Uppangala

    Animal cells extracted from their tissue or organs are cultured in aseptic laboratory with environmental conditions same as in vivo and this technique is called as animal cell culture. Some of the important areas where cell culture plays an important role are toxicity testing, cancer research, virology, gene therapy, drug discovery and many more. >> Category: Others
  • Biotechnology in the Farm - Combating Frost and Insects    By: Padma Kumar

    This article focuses on transgenic farm crops, how biotechnology helps combat frosts and insects and also details some of the advantages and concerns that biotechnology raises in the farm scenario. >> Category: Others
  • Metabolite Engineering of Secondary Compound    By: Hannibal Musarurwa

    Secondary compounds are a group of metabolite produced in plant in low quantities but are now being used widely for a variety of human needs including medicine. Their production can be enhanced by application of metabolite engineering, a techniques that enhances the biosynthetic productivity of plant systems. >> Category: Others
  • Biotechnology in the Making of Leather    By: Padma Kumar

    Explains the impact of biotechnology in the different stages of leather making. There is a paradigm shift in leather processing from chemical driven processes to enzyme driven processes. >> Category: Others
  • The Versatile Algae - Uses in Research and Industrial Applications    By: Padma Kumar

    In future algae is expected to play a phenomenol role in advances in biotechnology. This article outlines the use of algae in making renewable fuels, as a carbon sink,in cosmetics, genetic research and other areas. >> Category: Others
  • Future of the Universe.    By: VIVEK VYAS

    The present knowledge and observation on universe indicates that the universe will expand continuously forever. The totality of this is called as big freeze. >> Category: Others
  • Phytochemical Analysis: Metabolic Profiling Techniques    By: Lorato Lekgari

    Define metabolic profiling and the different techniques used in plants to characterize metabolite. Stating the importance of this in biotechnology >> Category: Others

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