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Most Recent Microbiology Articles.
  • Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)    By: Dharmendra Kumar

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important pollutants found in air, soil and sediments. These compounds enter the environment in many ways. PAHs and their derivatives are widespread products of incomplete combustion of organic materials arising, in part, from natural combustion such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions, but for the most part by human activities. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Proteomics and its Application in Agricultural Microbiology    By: Dharmendra Kumar

    Metaproteomics (also Community Proteomics, Environmental Proteomics, or Community Proteogenomics) is the study of all protein samples recovered directly from environmental sources. Metaproteomics is used to classify experiments that deal with all the genes and proteins identified from complex communities, where individuals cannot be binned into species or organisms types.The metaproteomics approach is comparable to gene-centric environmental genomics, or metagenomics >> Category: Microbiology
  • Microbial Amylases, Process Optimization and Industrial Applications    By: Dharmendra Kumar

    Amylases are among the most important enzymes used in industrial processes. Although, the use of amylases, a-amylases in particular, in starch liquefaction and other starch based industries has been prevalent for many decades and a number of microbial sources exist for the efficient production of this enzyme, the commercial production of this enzyme has been limited to only a few selected strains of fungi and bacteria. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Bioplastics - From Microorganisms to Nanotechnology    By: Dharmendra Kumar

    Bioplastics, defined as plastics derived from renewable carbon sources that are also biodegradeable, have been considered as good candidates for sustainable development as well as eco-friendly environment. The R&D on SB approaches is highly expected to deliver feasible approaches to bulk production of bioplastics. There are many aspects where SB can contribute to obtain this goal . Both SB and bioplastics are in their early stage of development. Most of the SB related research on bioplastics is focused on improving production of PHAs. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Cell to Cell Communication in Plants    By: Anshul Watts

    Cell to cell communication is essential for transportation of various signaling molecules, proteins, small RNA and transcription factors. Plant cell communicate each other through Plasmodesmata >> Category: Microbiology
  • Bacterial Candidates for Disease Suppression in Agro-Horticultural Crops    By: Dr. Ajinath Dukare

    Antagonistic bacteria present a highly efficient, environmentally compatible and economical method for biological control of phytopathogenic diseases. Plant rhizosphere associated microorganisms often provide the first barrier against plant pathogens which attack the plant roots. Multiple traits of bacteria like secretion of antifungal metabolites (antibiotics, volatile compounds), competition for nutrients and space, mycoparasitism, production of cell wall lytic enzymes and /or induced systemic resistance are involved in biological disease suppression >> Category: Microbiology
  • Agrobacterium Mediated Gene Transfer: An Overview [PDF]    By: Waghmare Sandesh Tulshiram

    The bacterial genes are able to replicate along with the plant genome and uses the machinery of plants to express their genes in terms of the synthesis of a special class of compounds, called opines, which the bacterium uses as nutrients for its growth but are useless to the host cells. A. tumefaciens attracted to the wound site via chemotaxis, in response to a phenolic compound. The transfer DNA (T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumour inducing plasmid (pTi) of some Agrobacterium species of bacteria. T-DNA has both its side 24 kb direct repeat border sequence and contains the gene for tumor / hairy root induction and also for opines biosynthesis. Removal of T-DNA region and other modification makes Ti plasmid as efficient gene cloning vector. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Genetic Engineering Approaches For Tolerance Against Abiotic Stress    By: Waghmare Sandesh Tulshiram

    Abiotic stress is the negative impact of non-living factors on living organism in a specific environment. It is naturally occurring and often intangible factors.Abiotic stresses are the main factors that limit crop productivity. Drought, salinity and heavy metals stresses caused yield losses annually to a greater extent. Transgenic development is another straight forward technology to improve crop yield in abiotic stress affected land. The development of tolerant crops by genetic engineering, on the other hand, requires the identification of key genetic determinants underlying stress tolerance in plants and introducing these genes into crops. The advent of plant transformation may have placed within the grasp of the possibility of engineering greater abiotic stress tolerance in plants. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Engineering Disease Resistance Based on TAL Effectors    By: Waghmare Sandesh Tulshiram

    TAL effectors affect plant processes in unique ways and the interaction between pathogen and host is now well understood in several specific cases. It provides a basis for overcoming TAL effector based virulence, exploiting TAL effector triggered resistance, and using TAL effector fusion proteins to engineer genomes for the specific purpose of aborting or limiting pathogen infection. TAL effectors have been shown to be a useful tool for genome engineering and synthetic biology in multiple systems >> Category: Microbiology
  • Microbe Assisted Management of Post-Harvest Horticultural Produce    By: Dr. Ajinath Dukare

    In the area of post-harvest losses management, microorganism finds better application in biocontrol of post-harvest diseases, conversion of fruits and vegetables waste through microbe mediated composting, utilization of these waste as a raw substrate for production of value added products such as bioenergy, single cell protein, organic acids, pigments biopolymer, organic fertilizers and biomass. Thus, tiny microbe could be suitable entities for efficient post-harvest management of horticultural produce >> Category: Microbiology
  • Methods of Determining Transcription Start Site    By: Anshul Watts

    Transcription start site (TSS) determination is very important for understanding gene structure and gene regulation. Presently TSS is determined by primer extension method, S1 nuclease mapping and RACE (RAPID AMPLIFICATION OF cDNA ENDS) techniques, but among these RACE is the most common method used to determine TSS >> Category: Microbiology
  • MicroRNA Engineering for Improved Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice    By: Neha Chavan

    Climatic aberrations such as drought and flood are causing threat to food production. Development of stress tolerant varieties is essential for maximum food production. Stress tolerance is complex and multigenic phenomenon. Transcription factors (TFs) play an vital role in regulating stress response transcription factors induce the expression of stress response genes (SOS genes) which causes physiological changes in plants hence, engineering transcription factors in crops is an effective and efficient way to induce drought tolerance. Under abiotic stress conditions most of the miRNA gets differentially expressed miRNAs that positively induce the expression of transcription factors can be used as candidate genes for production of stress tolerant plants by transgenic technology. >> Category: Microbiology
  • RNA Editing and its Potential Role in Evolution    By: Waghmare Sandesh Tulshiram

    RNA editing is the post-transcriptional alteration of RNA sequences through insertion, deletion or substitution of nucleotides, excluding the RNA processing events. The gene whose transcript is edited is cryptogene and the addition of several Uracils during the insertion is termed as pan editing. Substitution includes both Cytosine (C) to Uracil (U) and Adenosine (A) to Inosine (I), through hydrolytic deamination. RNA editing could be used for genome manipulation in crop plants also. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Probiotics and its Benefits    By: Ajit Kumar Dubedi Anal

    Probiotics are the live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. They play important roles in regulating proper intestinal function and digestion - by balancing intestinal microflora. >> Category: Microbiology
  • Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Strain's from Air, Soil and Water    By: Sumit Kumar Dubey

    Bacteria have both beneficial and harmful effects on human being as well as other organism present in the ecosystem. In order to evaluate their beneficial part and level harmfulness we need to isolation, characterization and identification of the bacterial consortium spreaded around us and subsequently necessary to go further for their assessment whether they behooveful or injurious for ecosystem and especially with respect to human being. >> Category: Microbiology

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