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Author: Muniba Safdar

No Photo Total Articles: 53 | Total Views: 514412 | Points Scored: 540,912

City: Islamabad | State: Pakistan

About Me: I am a Bio-informatics Graduate. I have recently done my degree project on "Molecular Docking Studies and Design of Anti Hepatitis B Drugs In Silico".

Articles by Muniba Safdar:
  • Causes of Genetic Disorders in Babies ( 4628 reads)   

    In babies genetic disorders are caused by an anomaly in the DNA. Subtraction, addition or mutation of genes is indications of genetic diseases in babies. Let's understand the susceptibility of the human fight to genes and their expressions. As we know that genes are tiny, microscopic segments of DNA. These are involved in producing a polypeptide chain. - Category: Genetics
  • Abnormalities Caused by Genetic Disorder in Humans ( 5113 reads)   

    Humans have thousands of genetic disorders, some of them are very common and a few are rare. Some disorders are incurable and scientists are trying to find their cure. More research work is required for the cure of these disorders. Now here is a broader view of human genetics and numerous genetic disorders in humans. - Category: Genetics
  • Medical Genetics: Its Introduction and Scope ( 5623 reads)   

    What is medical genetics? It is basically about the medicine involving the diagnosis and administration of hereditary disorders. This field is totally different from human genetics. Medical genetics is progressively becoming applicable to many common diseases. Recent advances has done in genetics that reveals cause of the disease. - Category: Genetics
  • Genetic Marker: Its Definition, Introduction, Background and Types ( 26050 reads)   

    What is genetic marker? A genetic marker is defined as a specific gene or DNA sequence that produces a detectable trait with a known location on a chromosome and that can be used to study family and population, identification of cells, species or individual. Genetic marker can also be described as a variation. It may be a short sequence of DNA. - Category: Genetics
  • Genetic Engineering: Its Definition, Introduction and Applications ( 10690 reads)   

    What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering or genetic modification is defined as the human's direct manipulation in an organism's genetic material. It is basically an alteration of genetic makeup of an organism by using techniques in order to produce heritable material and then directly introduce into a cell or host that is then amalgamated. - Category: Genetics
  • Nanorobotics: An Emerging Field of Nanotechnology ( 5391 reads)   

    What is Nanorobotics? It is an emerging application of nanotechnology that deals with the creation of robots or machines. The size of machines and robots are designed at or close to the scale of nanometer. Nano-robotics specifically refers to the use of nanotechnology engineering in order to build or design nano-robots or various other machines. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Nanostructure: Its Introduction and Various Forms ( 7981 reads)   

    What are nanostructures? A nanostructure is defined as an object of molecular and microscopic or micrometer-sized structures. When we describe nanostructures it is obligatory to distinguish between the numbers of measurements on the nanoscale.A nanostructure is basically used when stating to magnetic technology. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Green Nanotechnology: Its Definition, Introduction and Goals ( 10489 reads)   

    what is green nanotechnology? its definition, introduction and goals? Green nanotechnology is defined as the technology that is used to develop clean technologies in order to minimize human health and potential environmental risks. It is associated with the use of nanotechnology products and manufacturing process. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Nanomedicine: Its Introduction and Applications ( 5730 reads)   

    What is Nanomedicine its introduction and applications? Nanomedicine is the medicinal diligence of nanotechnology (is the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers.The main and current problem for nano-medicine is to understand the toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Stem Cells: Two Broad Types and Stem Cells Therapies ( 4472 reads)   

    What are stem cell types and its therapy? Stem cells or undifferentiated cells are found in all multicellular organisms or living things. They have the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division into other specialized cell types such as blood cells, skin cells, or intestinal tissues. - Category: Stem Cells
  • Toxicology: Its Introduction and Forensic Toxicology ( 7392 reads)   

    what is toxicology? what are its sub-disciplines? Toxicology is a division of chemistry, medicine, and biology. It is basically concerned with the study of hostile effects of chemical materials or substances, symptoms, treatments, mechanism, detection of poisoning of animals specifically the poisoning of human being. - Category: Toxicology
  • Biomechatronics: Its Introduction and Working ( 5637 reads)   

    What is Biomechatronics? It is an interdisciplinary field of science that incorporates mechanical elements, electronics and biological organisms. It includes the features of mechanics, biology and electronics. Hugh Herr a professor at M.I.T studied about bio-mechatronics. In his studies, he has caused a robotic fish to swim. - Category: Biology
  • Biomedical Engineering: Its Introduction and Sub-disciplinary Fields ( 8302 reads)   

    Information about biomedical engineering; its introduction and Sub-disciplines within biomedical engineering. Biomedical engineering is the use of engineering principles and methods to the medical field. Biomedical engineering work is basically about research and development. It crosses a broad range of sub-fields. - Category: Biology
  • Biologics: A Class of Medication Produced by Recombinant DNA Technology ( 6003 reads)   

    What is biologics? Information about its composition and Recombinant DNA biologics. Biologics generally refers to biology or to life and living things. It is a class of medication. It includes an extensive range of medicinal products in medicine created by biological processes. Biologics are sequestered from a multiplicity of natural sources such as human, animal, or microorganism. - Category: Biology
  • Biogas: Its Applications and Advantages ( 10026 reads)   

    What is biogas and what are its applications and advantages? Biogas is basically a type of biofuel and is originated from biogenic material. For example, if we want to generate electricity from any waste material methane gas and carbon dioxide is used which is produced by the fermentation or anaerobic digestion of biodegradable material. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Nano-Circuits: Composition and its Numerous Approaches ( 4244 reads)   

    What are nano-circuits? Nano-circuits, an electrical circuit, are operating on the nanometer scale. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Biophotonics: A Combination of Biology and Photonics and its Applications ( 5491 reads)   

    What is biophotonics? Biophotonics refers to detection, reflection, emission, modification, absorption, and creation of radiation from cells, organisms, biomolecular,tissues, and biomaterials. - Category: Biology
  • Biomarker: An Indicator of a Biological State and its Applications ( 4338 reads)   

    What is a biomarker? Introduction and its role in different fields. Used as an indicator that can be used to distinguish between an individual and population. It indicates a biological state or may indicate a presence of disease. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Nanotoxicology: Study of Toxicity of Nanomaterials ( 5244 reads)   

    what is nanotoxicology? Nanotoxicology, a branch of bionanoscience , deals with the study and applications of toxicity of nanomaterials. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • DNA Nanotechnology: History and Applications ( 6911 reads)   

    What is DNA nanotechnology? DNA nanotechnology, a branch of nanotechnology, uses the nucleic acids and acknowledged molecular properties of DNA. By using these properties and nucleic acids for technological purposes, we can create designed, artificial structures of DNA easily. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Nano-biotechnology: A Branch of Nanotechnology ( 7584 reads)   

    Nanobiotechnology is an emerging field of nanotechnology with biochemical and biological applications or activities. It integrates biotechnology on the nano-scale. In order to engineer new devices (biosensors), existing elements of nature has been studied in nano-biotechnology. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Nanophotonics: A Branch of Optical Engineering ( 4536 reads)   

    Nanophotonics or Nano-photonics or Nano-optics deals with the application of optics or light interaction with the particles or substances on length scales. It is actually the study of behavior of light. Two broad themes have been involved in the study of nano-photonics; - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Biochip: Recognizes Thousands of Genes at a Time ( 3734 reads)   

    What is Biochip and their history? Biochip is a microchip that uses tiny strands of DNA and recognize thousands of genes at a time. Biochips were first introduced by Affymetrix. Biochips have been started with the sensor technology and have a long story. In 1990, biochips were developed on a large scale with the advances of biochemistry and semiconductor fields. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Fullerene: Its Definition, Types and Scope ( 13569 reads)   

    What are Fullerenes? A fullerene is defined as a pure carbon form having at least 60 atoms. It exists in hollow sphere, ellipsoid (a surface whose plane sections are all ellipses or circles), or tube form. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • COMPUTATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY: Its Goal, Approach, Role and Scope ( 4288 reads)   

    What is computational nanotechnology; their goal, approach, role and scope. Computational Nanotechnology is the study, design, operation, analysis and optimization of Nano-scale systems. Moreover, computational nanotechnology enables tools and techniques physics-and-chemistry based simulations. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Difference Between Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopes ( 20046 reads)   

    Information about Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) ;their advantages & disadvantages, resolution, composition and applications. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Comparison Between Scanning Electron and Transmission Electron Microscopes ( 11544 reads)   

    Information about Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); their differences, crystallographic information, composition and applications. - Category: Biotech Research
  • What is Biomimicry? Nature Inspired Methodologies and Techniques. ( 6983 reads)   

    Biomimicry is a new-fangled concept in the field of biotechnology. Biomimicry is a Greek word bio, meaning life, and mimicry, meaning imitation. Biomimicry studies nature's best notions, models and trying to mimics these designs or schemes to elucidate human faults. Nature inspires everyone for its beauty, humans have always inspired by its beauty. - Category: Biotechnology products
  • Pairwise Sequence Alignment For Sequence Similarity ( 5897 reads)   

    What is pairwise alignment? It is the tool of Bioinformatics used to quantify and to visualize the sequence similarity. It is assumed that good alignment is equal to sequence similarity. In other words, the total number of alignment is huge, we need an objective function (scoring function) to identify the best alignment called 'Optimal alignment'. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Mass Spectrometry For the Identification of Protein ( 3661 reads)   

    What is Mass Spectrometer? It is a technique used to identify proteins from a sample. Its principle depends on mass, i.e. less mass of ion more will be the deflection, similarly more mass of ion, less will be the deflection (source of deflection is magnetic field or electric field). Generally, it is used to find molecular mass/mass to charge ratio of ions in a vacuum. - Category: Genetics
  • Edman Degradation - For Protein Sequencing ( 34106 reads)   

    What is Edman Degradation method? It is a chemical method used for the sequencing of amino acids in a peptide. This method is developed by Pehr Edman in 1960. In this methods, N-terminal or amino terminal is labeled or cleaved from the peptide and number of residues are identified. - Category: Genetics
  • 2-D Gel Electrophoresis | Analyze Proteins ( 4844 reads)   

    What is 2-D gel electrophoresis? The 2-D gel electrophoresis is abbreviated as two dimensional or 2-DE. It is a type of gel electrophoresis (that separates molecules on the basis of their rate of movement through a gel). It is usually used to analyze proteins. Proteins are separated on the basis of two properties by mass and charge in two dimensions on 2D gels. - Category: Genetics
  • Determination of Protein Sequence Via Bioinformatics Tool ( 3525 reads)   

    There are various methods through which sequence of protein can be determined. When we talk about finding the sequence of protein we salute Bioinformatics. Bioinformatics has provided us various tools which make our work easier - Category: Genetics
  • Proteomics and Analysis of Protein Sequence ( 3485 reads)   

    Protein function depends on three dimensional arrangements of amino acids and three dimensional structures depend on length of amino acid,order of amino acid and types of amino acid present in a particular peptides. If we have a denovo protein and we want to find its function, through Bioinformatics Tools we can determine the sequence of protein. - Category: Genetics
  • DNase Foot Printing: Identification of Protein Binding Site of DNA ( 6323 reads)   

    What is DNA foot printing? It is a technique used to identify protein binding site of DNA. As DNA exists in a cell in the form of nucleoprotein complex. Proteins interact with the DNA for the protection of DNA. It means there is DNA-protein interaction in the cell. There are specific sites where proteins bind. - Category: Genetics
  • Electrophoresis: SDS-PAGE | A Method of Gel Electrophoresis ( 14748 reads)   

    There are various methods for the separation of particular protein in a mixture. Electrophoresis is a non-selective approach defined as a molecule with a net charge will move in an electric fieldSDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a technique of electrophoresis. - Category: Genetics
  • Types of Chromatography: Affinity, Gel, Ion exchange and Reverse phase ( 18573 reads)   

    Chromatography is any separation technique that distributes the components of a mixture between two phases. Chromatography has various types but in Proteomics 'Liquid Chromatography' is mostly used. - Category: Genetics
  • Protein Quantitation: To Identify Particular Protein in a Sample ( 3624 reads)   

    Protein quantitation is a technique of 'Proteomics' in which abundance of particular proteins is identified in different samples. Proteome dependent on environmental condition is very important. To study particular disease, quantity of protein is required. - Category: Genetics
  • Strategies For Protein Identification | Proteome Map ( 3287 reads)   

    Various techniques through which proteins can be identified, their advantages and disadvantages. The aim of proteomics (study the full set of proteins) is to identify all proteins and make proteome map. To study particular disease we have required quantity of protein. - Category: Genetics
  • PCR Aspects and its Future | PCR versus Cloning ( 7083 reads)   

    PCR is the abbreviation of 'Polymerase Chain Reaction'. It was invented by Kary Mullis in 1983. It is one of the methods of genetic engineering used to produce multiple copies of DNA, other being the cloning. It is used to amplify specific nucleic acids. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Proteomics: Proteins Expressed by Genome ( 3747 reads)   

    Proteomics is the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome. It involves identification of protein in a body and the determination of their role in physiological and pathophysiological (diseased condition) function or conditions. For example in cancer protein is unexpressed. - Category: Genetics
  • GenScan: Bioinformatics Software For Structure Prediction and Analysis of Gene ( 18034 reads)   

    GenScan is bioinformatics software. Its mainsail function is to acquire a DNA sequence and find the open reading frames (a sequence of DNA that could potentially encode a protein) that accord to genes. GenScan was formulated by Prof. Chris Burg who is currently working on his thesis. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Gene Therapy: Advantages and Disadvantages ( 80540 reads)   

    Benefits and issues of Gene therapy: It is a technique in which a gene that is responsible for disease development is replaced with a healthy gene, in other words defective gene is corrected. This is done by inserting number of genes into patient's cells and tissues for the treatment of hereditary diseases. - Category: Genetics
  • Contagious Disease Epidemiology ( 3013 reads)   

    Epidemiology is the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease. In other words, the study of spreading of disease with an effect to tracing down the cause. - Category: Healthcare
  • Bioethics of Human Genetics ( 4906 reads)   

    Research in the field of human genetics is very thorny but could be very informative and used to predict, change or select the useful trait. - Category: Issues
  • Phylogenetics: Evolutionary Relationship Among Species ( 7942 reads)   

    What is Phylogenetics? It is a field of biology which is used to find relationships among different organisms. Ancestrals are divided into two descendant species because closely related organisms are shown in near branches. If there is too much divergence between two species its mean they are not closely related. - Category: Genetics
  • Prenatal Diagnosis via Bioinformatics Skills ( 4207 reads)   

    Bio-informatics tools have opened the new ways for the detection of defective genes. Bio-informatics is a gigantic field providing with them great benefits. It provides solution to the problem. It has been used everywhere for solving many problems. Researchers who are trying to materialize this field so that one could find solutions. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Silver Nanoparticles Elevates Wound Healing ( 4801 reads)   

    Today, nanoparticles acquire great place in research, they have been used in many fields. Nano size particles exhibit extremely small size and having large surface area. Different size of particle contains different properties as the size increases - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Nanosensors For Security Benefits ( 4837 reads)   

    Most important application of nanotechnology is nanosensors which are used for the security in hospitals, airports and public areas. Nanosensors are very helpful for detecting dangerous substances, tiny amounts of explosives or chemicals, which could safe many lives in the future. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Application of Bioinformatics in Medicine ( 22078 reads)   

    Bioinformatics has become emerging field and has been used in various areas of research including medicine. The principal goal of bioinformatics is to enhance the understanding of biological processes. - Category: Bioinformatics


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