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Author: Preethi Venkateswaran

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Articles by Preethi Venkateswaran:
  • A Detailed Review on Feeder-free Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cells ( 4364 reads)   

    Human Embryonic Stem cells (hESC) are derived from blastocysts. They are grown in strict culture conditions and offer a promising future in applications such as cell therapy, drug development and drug discovery. It is known that hESC cells can be derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEF) or humans. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Financial and Marketing Aspects of Qnexa ( 2686 reads)   

    Incidence and Prevalence of Obesity It is a well known fact that obesity is currently a growing concern which affects more than one-third of the American population. It is mainly caused due to the increase in body weight as a result of excessive accumulation of fat in the body. Obesity is linked to many life threatening diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is defined as body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. BMI is calculated from a person's weight and height. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Assessment of QNEXAA in the US Market ( 2700 reads)   

    The objective of this assessment was to evaluate QNEXA®, a drug for anti-obesity developed by Vivus Inc. During this work, the market opportunity for the drug, marketing strategy, financial aspects and the risks associated with it were reviewed. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Vaccine For Rotavirus ( 3265 reads)   

    The development of a vaccine is the ultimate treatment against this virus. This vaccine must duplicate the role played by the natural immunity. Vaccine program must include the prevention of moderate to severe disease. Over the last 2-3 decades many vaccines have been developed of which the 'jennerian' vaccines were the first to be introduced. - Category: Biotech Research
  • All About Rotavirus and It's Virology ( 4513 reads)   

    The name rotavirus comes from the Latin word 'rota' (means wheel), and it indeed looks like a wheel. Rotavirus, a non-enveloped virus with an 11-segment double stranded RNA genome, was first found in humans using electron microscopy in biopsies from children with acute gastroenteritis, before being first spotted in animals in 1960's. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Challenges and Solutions in Pediatric Clinical Trials - Part III ( 3389 reads)   

    Perspectives of clinicians can also pose as a barrier for the recruitment of pediatric subjects. Clinicians are asked to recruit children for research studies. This involves time and effort as there is consent to be taken from parents and describe the studies to both the children and parents. This time could be used to treat patients instead. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Need for Pediatric Formulations in Clinical Trials - Part II ( 3115 reads)   

    For most of the drugs, efficacy studies are not carried out for children differently but just cut and copy pasted from adult data. Disodium pamidronate is licensed for use in Paget's disease and osteolytic lesions and bone pain in multiple myeloma and breast cancer in adults, but it has also been used in a variety of pediatric conditions. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Introduction to Pediatric Participation in Clinical Trials - Part I ( 2944 reads)   

    Medicine and healthcare, for all these years, have been evidence-based in the case of adults, and will continue to be so. However, the quality and efficacy of research in pediatrics are mostly based on anecdotal data and extrapolation of data from adult research. Over 50% of the medications used for children are used as 'off-label' and there have been no records of testing them in children. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Innate Immune Response to Fungi ( 5054 reads)   

    The innate immune system consists of constitutive and inducible mechanisms that are involved in combating fungal pathogens. The constitutive mechanisms include several barriers like body surfaces, mucosal epithelial surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tracts. - Category: Healthcare
  • Adaptive Immune Responses to Fungal Infections ( 6260 reads)   

    The adaptive immune responses to fungal infection involve the cell mediated and humoral responses. The cell mediated responses include effector cells and the humoral effector molecules include antibodies which play a role in combating fungal infections. - Category: Biotech Research
  • IPEX - A Detailed Review ( 3893 reads)   

    IPEX is immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked syndrome. It is a rare inborn error of the immune regulation characterised by early onset of one or more autoimmune diseases in boys. IPEX occurs due to mutations in Foxp3. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Mechanism and Suppression by T Regulatory Cells ( 4055 reads)   

    T regulatory cells are very essential for the modulation of immune responses. There are four basic modes of action namely: 1. Suppression by inhibitory cytokines: Inhibitory cytokines like interleukin 10 and TGF- β have been mediators of Treg cell induced suppression. It was always thought that Tregs function in a contact dependent manner hence the involvement of IL10 and TGF β was thought twice about. Tregs control disease in a manner that is dependent on IL10 and TGF β. An allergen challenge occurs after which CD4+ effector T cells are stimulated and these produce large amounts of IL-10 in lung by allergen specific Tregs and these control diseases. - Category: Biotech Research
  • T Regulatory Cells a Thorough Understanding ( 2896 reads)   

    It has been a misunderstanding that allergies and autoimmune diseases are caused due to imbalance in Th1/Th2 activity but this is due to the T regulatory cells (Tregs). The T regulatory cells were first named as suppressor cells as they suppress activation of the immune responses hence maintaining homeostasis and tolerance to self antigens. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Assay Development For Drug Discovery ( 3077 reads)   

    In order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease, understanding the development of drug assays/screens that target essential and specific cellular and molecular processes that cause the disease. This in turn enhances the probability of discovering target- specific drug candidates that will be less toxic. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Drug Development and Some Important Concepts with Examples ( 2888 reads)   

    Drugs are chemical compounds which prevent diseases and infections. Anciently plants/plant parts were used to ameliorate certain disease symptoms. Chinese/Indians/German herbal medicines have been used for years. The methodology to use plants for treatment is to isolate the pharmacologically active drug from the plant and hence treat. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Fine Needle Aspiration Technology ( 5385 reads)   

    Standard disposable 27-22 guage, 30-50mm long needles are suitable for superficial, palpable lesions. 25- guage needles are mostly used. Yield with such needles is however less, samples are however adequate and smears are of better quality due to lesser admixture with blood. 27 guage needles are used mainly for children and for sensitive areas. - Category: Applications
  • Latest Ventures In Diabetic Treatment - Types of Diabetes ( 3336 reads)   

    Diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. It is also known to be a group of diseases characterized by abnormally high levels of the sugar glucose in the bloodstream. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • All About Elisa And Immunoelectrophoresis ( 6782 reads)   

    ELISA was developed in 1971 by two groups independently, namely Engvall and Perlmann, and Werman and Schuurs. Later Vollar and Clark and Adams utilized ELISA for detection of virus infection. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Detailed Discussion of Tumour Markers ( 3169 reads)   

    Tumour markers are substances, usually proteins that are produced by the body in response to cancer growth or by the cancer tissue itself. Some tumour markers are specific, while others are seen in several cancer types. - Category: Healthcare
  • Cytokines and Immune Responses to Trichuris Muris ( 3539 reads)   

    Trichuris muris infection is characterized by crypt hyperplasia, eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucosal mastocytosis. The T helper cells produced type 1 cytokines IFN-γ, lymphotoxin and IL-2; stimulated IgG2a production and cell mediated effector responses. The type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9 and IL-13 were secreted by Th2 cells in absence of type 1 cytokines and promoted production of IgE and IgG1. Resistance to intestinal nematodes was associated with the development of a Th2 response. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Lyphocyte Populations and their Contribution During Trichuris Muris Infection ( 3094 reads)   

    The role of T cells in mediating resistance and susceptibility to the parasitic gastrointestinal nematode T. muris has been well defined. This is due to the existence of strains of mice which are resistant and susceptible to the parasite and early observations of polarized T helper responses in these strains. The importance of the thymus as a source of T cell was confirmed by careful observation - Category: Biotech Research
  • Trichuris Muris Infection - Immune Response and Lifecycle ( 5627 reads)   

    Gastrointestinal helminth infections are widespread across the globe and throughout the animal kingdom where they are responsible for the loss of productivity in cattle and other livestock. They cause infections in humans too which has a considerable impact as they infect over 1 billion people worldwide. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Similarities and Differences Between TCR and MHC ( 8112 reads)   

    Somatic hypermutation increases the BCR by bringing about point mutations in the V regions of both chains. The somatic mutations is brought about by an enzyme AID which is activation induced cytidine deaminase and this is expressed in B cells but do not occur in TCR genes. AID is active only in activated B cells and these increase DNA damage thereby leading to a mutation. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Mechanisms in Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) ( 3551 reads)   

    There are many mechanisms which lead to polymorphisms. The mechanisms differ from MHC to antibody/TCR genes. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Polymorphisms in Major Histocompatability Complex ( 4037 reads)   

    There are many genetic mechanisms which generate new alleles. New alleles arise by point mutations or by gene conversion. Here in gene conversion one gene is replaced in part by sequences from a different gene. Mutations can be replacement and silent substitution. - Category: Biotech Research
  • All About Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antibodies ( 4483 reads)   

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) occupies 3.6Mb on chromosome 6. Genes present in the MHC bind peptides of either intracellular or extracellular origin and present them to T cells. When these peptides are recognised as foreign the T cells initiate an immune response. So far there are 128 functional genes in MHC which are known. MHC is a multigene family which control self/nonself recognition - Category: Biotech Research
  • Nanomedicine Techniques - Atomic force microscopy and Femtosecond laser surgery ( 4166 reads)   

    Nanotechnology is concerned with almost anything and everything due to their nanoscale size. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology in medicine like nanosurgery, tissue engineering and targeted drug delivery. Nanotechnology refers to the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems which have novel physical, chemical and biological properties. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Immunoglobulin Genes and the B Cell Development ( 4000 reads)   

    The immune system recognizes foreign molecules (antigens) through special receptors which enables them to elicit an immune response against them. The adaptive immune system has B-lymphocytes as one of the main players which produce antibodies as their antigen recognizing molecules. Each antibody/immunoglobulin molecule has a unique recognition site which is specific for a particular epitope. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Antibodies- Conserved and Variable Regions ( 5961 reads)   

    Antibodies are the secreted form of the B-cell receptor. An antibody is identical to the B-cell receptor of the cell that secretes it except for a small portion of the C-terminus of the heavy-chain constant region. In the case of the B-cell receptor the C-terminus is a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring sequence, and in the case of antibody it is a hydrophilic sequence that allows secretion. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Immune System Components Involved in Defence Against Viruses ( 2717 reads)   

    T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) cells are chiefly involved in defence against viruses. Besides these cells, B lymphocytes also play a role in defence, when the T lymphocytes attack the virus the B lymphocytes simultaneously produce antibodies. So that on exposure to the same virus for a second time, the antibody prevents infection. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Current Ventures in Nanomedicine ( 3727 reads)   

    It is the branch of science that deals with fabrication of materials and devices on nanoscale. Medicine has always been integral part of human life and will always continue to do so. Hence applying nanotechnology in the field of medicine is bound to benefit the human race. Nanomedicine is the science and technology of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease. - Category: Nanotechnology
  • Immune System Components For Defence Against Intracellular Bacteria ( 3757 reads)   

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen; it grows inside the vesicles of (mostly) macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These bacteria are protected from the effects of antibodies and cytotoxic T cells. They cannot be destroyed as they escape acidification in the vesicles due to presence of mycolic acid in their cell walls. Thus, in order to destroy these T and NK cells are involved. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Immune System Components For Defence Against Extracellular Pathogens ( 4081 reads)   

    The antibodies, phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) and complement are the major components of the immune system which provide defence against extracellular bacteria. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are also involved, they are present on the surface of the phagocytic cells and recognize specific patterns on the pathogens and are thus, able to phagocytosize them. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Theories of Sex predominance | Women and Men Differences ( 4064 reads)   

    The body's innate aversion to self destruction is called as autoimmunity. This was first noted by Ehrlich and Morgenroth. It was found that the injection of self antigens failed to elicit an immune response in the autologous host. The goats which were immunized failed to recognise and produce their own antibodies. Thus was coined the concept horror autotoxicus. - Category: Biotech Research
  • The Detailed Functions of Gamma Delta T Cells ( 6143 reads)   

    The functions of gamma delta T cells (γδT) are specific according to their location. It is observed that γδT cells express cytotoxic molecules- perforin,granzymes and FAS ligand. Chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 and adhesion molecules are also expressed by γδT cells. These γδT cells are considered as the first line of defense as they exhibit both activated and resting state. - Category: Biology
  • Gamma Delta T Cells and Their Development ( 8759 reads)   

    Gamma Delta T cells are a part of the T cells and they have a distinct T Cell Receptor (TCR) on the surface. The B and T lymphocytes are different from each other cause of their ability to interact with a wide variety of antigens. The TCR and Immunoglobulin help in specific interaction. In gamma delta T cell the T Cell Receptor (TCR) has 1 gamma and 1 delta chain. It was seen that the gamma delta (γδ) chains form another class of recognition structure. - Category: Biology
  • The World of Fungi and Fungal Infections | Laboratory Tests ( 3511 reads)   

    Fungi are saprophytic and parasitic nucleated eukaryotes lacking chlorophyll. They are found in environment as free living organisms; they differ from eukaryotes and hence classified under a separate kingdom. Some fungi reproduce by spreading microscopic spores. These spores are often present in the air, where they can be inhaled or come into contact with the surfaces of the body, mainly skin. - Category: Biology
  • Autoimmunity - Overview and Classification of Autoimmune Diseases ( 7348 reads)   

    Immune system is like any other system which leads to failure of some or all the parts. This failure can lead to disastrous consequences. When the immune system fails to recognize its own cells and begins to destroy them the result is autoimmunity. It was Paul Ehrlich who coined autoimmunity and termed this condition as 'horror autotoxicus.' - Category: Biotech Research
  • Xenotransplantaion - A Boon Or Bane (Part 2) ( 3317 reads)   

    After talking about the major two immunological barriers during xenotransplantation, there is one last one left to talk about which is the Cellular Xenograft Rejection (ACXR.) Apart from the immunological barriers there are microbial, ethical and pathophysiological barriers too. In spite of all these flaws xenotransplantaion is a success and surely a boon to the human society. - Category: Biology
  • Xenotransplantaion - A Boon Or Bane (Part 1) ( 3813 reads)   

    The use of human organs for transplantation was the initial trend, but due to the shortage of human organs xenotransplantation came into picture. From an immunological perspective nonhuman animals would be better donors for transplantation of organs however, most of these species are either endangered or are too small to provide organs for the transplantation. Use of pigs avoided these problems. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Transplantation: A Medical Breakthrough ( 4067 reads)   

    Transplantation has been a medical miracle. The use of organs from human organ donors, and their transplantation into patients having an organ failure has lead to successful allo-transplantations. The use of human organs for transplantation however, have led to acute shortage of human organs and have led to the death of many. In order to solve this problem organs from animals were considered. - Category: Biotech Research

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