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Author Photo Total Articles: 47 | Total Views: 189610 | Points Scored: 213,110


About Me: I'm Ph.D. Scholar in University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore.

Articles by SUNIL KUMAR, S.V.:
  • Microsatellite Markers: An Important Tool in Plant Breeding ( 3331 reads)   

    With the advances in understanding the sequence organization of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a class of repetitive DNA sequences was found to be an integral part of the eukaryotic genome. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been used for a variety of purposes, including gene tagging, physical mapping, genome mapping and estimation of genetic diversity. SSRs/microsatellites are short sequence elements that are arranged in a simple internal repeat structure. SSR or short tandem repeats of DNA sequences (1-6 bp), is present throughout the genome of an individual, both in coding and non-coding regions. Microsatellite loci display co-dominant inheritance, high information content, reproducibility, and even distribution along chromosomes with specificity of locus - Category: Agriculture
  • The Role of Mutations in Population Genetics ( 2118 reads)   

    Mutation is the sudden heritable change in an organism. The mutations are very important which create the variation(s) in the organism. the variations may be beneficial to the organism or it may be harmful. Mutations has its own importance in the evolution of organisms. - Category: Agriculture
  • Genetics, Physiology and Molecular Biology of Salinity Stress Tolerance ( 3371 reads)   

    The productivity of plants is greatly affected by various environmental stresses such as drought, salinity and freezing. Among these, salinity is the most important factor limiting crop productivity. Nearly 20 % of worlds cultivated area and nearly half of worlds irrigated land is affected by salinity. - Category: Agriculture
  • Epigenetic Phenomena ( 3294 reads)   

    Epigenetic refers to heritable changes in gene expression not attributable to nucleotide sequence variation. Epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, genome imprinting and dosage compensation - Category: Genetics
  • Engineering Virus Disease Resistance ( 2573 reads)   

    Development of plant transformation technology provides novel approaches in crop improvement and promises greater efficiency and precision to plant breeding. The widest variety of transgenic strategies for introducing resistance has been attempted in viruses. Since viruses have small genomes with limited selection proteins and the vast majority of plant viruses are plus stranded RNA viruses with simple replication strategies, it has been possible to devise a number of successful methods of interfering with development of viral infections - Category: Genetics
  • Sexual Selection ( 2203 reads)   

    Sexual dimorphism, a difference in form or behavior between females and males, is common. The traits like the enormous tail feathers of peacock that appear to be opposed by natural selection. To explain these puzzling traits, Darwin invoked sexual selection. Sexual selection is differential reproductive success resulting from variation in mating success. - Category: Agriculture
  • Hybrid Seed Production - Genetically Engineered Pollination Control Systems ( 2559 reads)   

    Hybrids are contributing a lot in the field of Agriculture with higher production and good quality produce. The raw material for hybrids are the seeds. In the process of Hybrid Seed production, there is requiremet of land labour and technical know how. so development of hybrid seeds with inculcation of genetic engineering will be helpful. - Category: Agriculture
  • Genetic Engineering For Crop Improvement ( 12468 reads)   

    Genetic engineering becomes a powerful technique that applicable for altering the genetic make up of the crop plants. It is achieved through transgenic or recombinant DNA technology. The crop plants having so many desired characters but due the presence of one or few unfavourable characters makes the crop to limit in its area & production. so there is solution of genetic engg. for crop improvement - Category: Agriculture
  • Transgenic Bt Cotton - Boon or Bane to the Indian Farmers ( 14694 reads)   

    Cotton is a most important fiber & commercial crop of the world which is cultivated in tropical & semi tropical regions of the world. The cotton is also known as 'white gold'. Among biotic stresses, insect pest incidence becomes a major constraint in cotton production. To meet the changing needs of present day requirements, developing improved varieties in cotton via genetic engineering is needed. - Category: Agriculture
  • Antimicrobial Compounds of Plants ( 5295 reads)   

    Antimicrobial compounds of plants collectively referred as 'green chemicals'. The majority of antimicrobial compounds are identified as secondary metabolites. Prohibitins are essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. 1389 plants have a potential green chemical sources and 250 new antifungal metabolites. This method of preservation is termed as 'Allelopathy'. The major concern is the control of microorganisms to increase the shelf life and prevent microorganisms. - Category: Agriculture
  • Real-Time PCR - Its Utility ( 3134 reads)   

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene expression as a result of physiology, pathophysiology, or development. - Category: Agriculture
  • Rep-PCR in Molecular Biology ( 6109 reads)   

    The use of repetitive element PCR fingerprinting is molecular biology based method very suitable for rapid grouping and tentatively identification of microorganisms. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA contains so-called repetitive DNA elements distributed more or less randomly over the genome. - Category: Genetics
  • Polyploidy in Plants - Its Origine ( 4070 reads)   

    One of the remarkable features of living material is their ability to perpetuate themselves. However, the ever dynamic nature of the surrounding environment has imposed upon plants, much like other organisms, various evolutionary and selective bottlenecks necessitating the adoption of ways and means by organisms to keep their 'race going'. - Category: Agriculture
  • Transgenic Plants - The Impact on Environment ( 3224 reads)   

    Modern agriculture is intrinsically destructive of the environment. It is particularly destructive of biological diversity, notably when practiced in a very resource-inefficient way, or when it applies technologies that are not adapted to environmental features of a particular area. As with the development of any new technology, a careful approach is warranted. - Category: Genetics
  • DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) in Molecular Breeding ( 3216 reads)   

    DArT is one of the recently developed molecular techniques and it has only been used in various crops for genetic diversity and mapping studies. it has many advantages and limitation in supporting the plant breeding programme, to bring desired changes in crop plant. - Category: Agriculture
  • GM Technology - Benefit to Agriculture ( 3016 reads)   

    GM technology has been used to produce a variety of crop plants to date, primarily with 'market-led' traits, some of which have become commercially successful. Developments resulting in commercially produced varieties in countries such as the USA and Canada have centred on increasing shelf-life of fruits and vegetables, conferring resistance to insect pests or viruses, and producing tolerance to specific herbicides. - Category: Agriculture
  • Transgenic Plants and Safety of Human Health ( 3212 reads)   

    Now a days, the new technologies proliferated to solve many problems not only in animals, microbes etc. but also in crop improvement programmes. scientific world is moving in a fast phase to achieve required/ desired targets, in the same time, there is a need of intensive study on advers effects of these technologies on human and animal health. - Category: Agriculture
  • Use of Biotechnology in Plant Breeding ( 4117 reads)   

    Biotechnology is one of the powerful and potential technology for bring desired changes in the characteristics of plants, where there is a limited variation is present. This technology can be make use in plant improvement, which may be involve quality or quantity aspects. This is also helpful to bring improvement across the species barrier. - Category: Agriculture
  • Natural Selection - A Genetic Basis ( 3154 reads)   

    Natural selection is the evolutionary process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their compatible reprodducible individuals. It is a key mechanism of evolution of species. - Category: Genetics
  • Speciation Patterns | Sympatric Speciation by Polyploidy ( 4672 reads)   

    Speciation is the evolutionary process where in A group of individuals are potential to mate each other and produce viable and fertile off springs. The speciation lead by different patterns. - Category: Agriculture
  • Plant Breeding and its Goals ( 6220 reads)   

    Plant breeding, application of genetic principles to produce plants that are more useful to humans. This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be economically or aesthetically desirable, first by controlling the mating of selected individuals, and then by selecting certain individuals among the progeny. Such processes, repeated over many generations, can change the hereditary makeup and value of a plant population far beyond the natural limits of previously existing populations. This article emphasizes the application of genetic principles to the improvement of plants; the biological factors underlying plant breeding are dealt with in the article heredity. - Category: Agriculture
  • Synthetic Variety Development ( 5408 reads)   

    A synthetic variety is developed by intercrossing a number of genotypes of known superior combining ability--i.e., genotypes that are known to give superior hybrid performance when crossed in all combinations. (By contrast, a variety developed by mass selection is made up of genotypes bulked together without having undergone preliminary testing to determine their performance in hybrid combination.) Synthetic varieties are known for their hybrid vigour and for their ability to produce usable seed for succeeding seasons. Because of these advantages, synthetic varieties have become increasingly favoured in the growing of many species, such as the forage crops, in which expense prohibits the development or use of hybrid varieties. - Category: Agriculture
  • SDS-PAGE and its Applications in Crop Improvement ( 3536 reads)   

    SDS-PAGE, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, describes a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensics, genetics and molecular biology to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of the length of a polypeptide chain and its charge). In most proteins, the binding of SDS to the polypeptide chain imparts an even distribution of charge per unit mass, thereby resulting in a fractionation by approximate size during electrophoresis. - Category: Agriculture
  • Proteome - The Useful in Understanding Plant Insight ( 2158 reads)   

    The proteome is the entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism. More specifically, it is the set of expressed proteins in a given type of cells or an organism at a given time under defined conditions. The term is a portmanteau of proteins and genome. The term has been applied to several different types of biological systems. A cellular proteome is the collection of proteins found in a particular cell type under a particular set of environmental conditions such as exposure to hormone stimulation. It can also be useful to consider an organism's complete proteome, which can be conceptualized as the complete set of proteins from all of the various cellular proteomes. This is very roughly the protein equivalent of the genome. - Category: Agriculture
  • Artificially Induced Mutations ( 3878 reads)   

    Breeding has been practiced since the early human civilization and selection was the first method of breeding, adding the criteria of suitability for man's use (e.g. larger seed, better taste, easier harvestability) to those of natural adaptation, fitness and offspring. It has been said, that the ultimate source of all heritable variation to select from are mutations. But such a statement leaves open, where the genes to start with and the genetic code came from. Recombination of genes can provide additional genetic variation, if differences exist not only between various genes, but also in form of alleles of particular genes of prospective recombinants. Such alleles derive from mutations. Using mutants in cross breeding requires no in depth knowledge about mutations, because the mutated trait is the object of desire. But when the mutant trait is not inherited as expected, the breeder may begin to think about the actual mutational event, that led to the mutant phenotype. - Category: Agriculture
  • Transcriptome - Aventure Into Crop Improvement ( 3871 reads)   

    The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules, including mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and other non-coding RNA produced in one or a population of cells. - Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Markers as Size and Sequence Variants ( 2413 reads)   

    Molecular markers have great potential to assist plant breeders in development of improved varieties by complementing phenotypic selection. This module provides an overview of molecular markers. Technology used for genotyping is rapidly changing, requiring us to think beyond markers as bands on a gel. - Category: Others
  • Background Selection - Genomes ( 2196 reads)   

    Background selection refers to selection applied to regions of the genome that are not known to be associated with desired traits. This type of selection is usually referred to in the context of trait introgression. Trait introgression, the process of integrating a trait from one species into another, is a common strategy used for crop improvement. - Category: Agriculture
  • Induced Mutations - Basis For Beneficial Application in Plant Breeding ( 4467 reads)   

    There were a number of futile attempts to link the successful performance of crop plant mutants to the mutagen and the applied dose by which they were originally induced, but there are hardly any investigations about the molecular changes of genes in the genomes of improved mutant cultivars, and only few concerning specific crop plant mutants. - Category: Others
  • Gene Pyramiding in Crop Improvement ( 3609 reads)   

    The development of molecular genetics and associated technology like MAS has led to the emergence of a new field in plant breeding-Gene pyramiding. Pyramiding entails stacking multiple genes leading to the simultaneous expression of more than one gene in a variety to develop durable resistance expression. Gene pyramiding is gaining considerable importance as it would improve the efficiency of plant breeding leading to the development of genetic stocks and precise development of broad spectrum resistance capabilities. The success of gene pyramiding depends upon several critical factors, including the number of genes to be transferred, the distance between the target genes and flanking markers, the number of genotype selected in each breeding generation, the nature of germplasm etc. Innovative tools such as DNA chips, micro arrays, SNPs are making rapid strides, aiming towards assessing the gene functions through genome wide experimental approaches. The power and efficiency of genotyping are expected to improve in the coming decades. - Category: Agriculture
  • Gas Chromatography and its Applications ( 3809 reads)   

    Chromatography, in one of its several forms, is the most commonly used procedure in contemporary chemical analysis and the first configuration of chromatography equipment to be produced in a single composite unit and made commercially available was the gas chromatograph. - Category: Agriculture
  • Chromosomal Banding Patterns ( 5002 reads)   

    Depending upon the type of dye or fluorochrome or the chromosome pretreatment, there can be different types of banding patterns such as G-banding, Q-banding, C-banding, and R-banding. - Category: Agriculture
  • G-Banding - Its Applications in Cytogenetics ( 3750 reads)   

    Chromosomes are G-banded to facilitate the identification of structural abnormalities. Slides are dehydrated, treated with the enzyme trypsin, and then stained. - Category: Agriculture
  • Proteomics in Agriculture ( 4560 reads)   

    The advent of proteomics has made it possible to identify a broad spectrum of proteins in living systems. This capability is especially useful for crops as it may give clues not only about nutritional value, but also about yield and how these factors are affected by adverse conditions. In this review, we describe the recent progress in crop proteomics and highlight the achievements made in understanding the proteomes of major crops. The major emphasis will be on crop responses to abiotic stresses. Rigorous genetic testing of the role of possibly important proteins can be conducted. The increasing ease with the DNA, mRNA and protein levels can be conducted and connected suggests that proteomics data will not be difficult to apply to practical crop breeding. - Category: Applications
  • DNA Fingerprinting - Applications and Problems ( 4747 reads)   

    The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. The only difference between people (or any animal) is the order of the base pairs. There are so many millions of base pairs in each person's DNA that every person has a different sequence. Using these sequences, every person could be identified solely by the sequence of their base pairs. However, because there are so many millions of base pairs, the task would be very time-consuming. Instead, scientists are able to use a shorter method, because of repeating patterns in DNA. These patterns do not, however, give an individual 'fingerprint,' but they are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people. Scientists use a small number of sequences of DNA that are known to vary among individuals a great deal, and analyze those to get a certain probability of a match. - Category: DNA
  • Molecular Farming for the Globe ( 2681 reads)   

    Biotechnology in agriculture has two categories: (1)'improvements' to existing livestock and crops, and (2) development of entirely new uses for both animals and plants (Biopharming ) So called 'improvements', include 'input traits' such as crops with extra resistance to insect attack and improved weed control. These 'GM' or 'GMO' crops are modified food crops made more commercially viable, e.g. 'Roundup ready' soya, 'Starlite' corn, or 'Frost-tolerant' tomatoes. Consumers are worried about the safety of their food. Unfortunately we already have cases of compliance failures... By SUNIL KUMAR, S.V. and ANIL KUMAR, S.V. - Category: Agriculture
  • Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) ( 2864 reads)   

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) uses fluorescent molecules to vividly paint genes or chromosomes. This technique is particularly useful for gene mapping and for identifying chromosomal abnormalities. - Category: Agriculture
  • In Situ Hybridization (ISH) ( 3196 reads)   

    In Situ Hybridization (ISH) is a technique that allows for precise localization of a specific segment of nucleic acid within a histologic section. The underlying basis of ISH is that nucleic acids, if preserved adequately within a histologic specimen, can be detected through the application of a complementary strand of nucleic acid to which a reporter molecule is attached. Visualization of the reporter molecule allows localizing DNA or RNA sequences in a heterogeneous cell populations including tissue samples and environmental samples. Riboprobes also allow to localize and assess degree of gene expression. The technique is particularly useful in neuroscience. - Category: Agriculture
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- Its Applications ( 5662 reads)   

    PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is a revolutionary method developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s. PCR is based on using the ability of DNA polymerase to synthesize new strand of DNA complementary to the offered template strand. Because DNA polymerase can add a nucleotide only onto a preexisting 3'-OH group, it needs a primer to which it can add the first nucleotide. This requirement makes it possi. - Category: Agriculture
  • Electrophoresis - Its Venture Into Agricultural Biology ( 3761 reads)   

    Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field. This electrokinetic phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1807 by Reuss (Moscow State University), who noticed that the application of a constant electric field caused clay particles dispersed in water to migrate. It is ultimately caused by the presence of a charged interface between the particle surface and the surrounding fluid. Electrophoresis of positively charged particles (cations) is called cataphoresis, while electrophoresis of negatively charged particles (anions) is called anaphoresis. - Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Farming in Crop Plants ( 4188 reads)   

    Molecular farming (also known as molecular pharming or biopharming) is the use of genetically engineered crops to produce compounds with therapeutic value. These crops will become biological factories used to generate drugs and other difficult or expensive products. The term pharming can be used to describe plant derived pharmaceuticals, but it is more commonly used for products engineered in animals. The issue of genetically modified crops has been around for a number of years and continues to be a controversial subject. - Category: Agriculture
  • Molecular Breeding and Marker-Assisted Selection ( 2717 reads)   

    The process of developing new crop varieties requires many steps and can take almost 25 years. Now, however, applications of agricultural biotechnology have considerably shortened the time it takes to bring them to market. - Category: Agriculture
  • Biopesticides: Potential Eco Friendly Pest Management Programs ( 2771 reads)   

    Biopesticides include all types of agents and products derived from biotic sources, with potential for the control of phytophagous insects, plant diseases and pests of public health importance. These products have been used for pest and disease control for many centuries, but it has been only in recent years that greater attention has been directed toward the discovery and development of natural products, phytochemicals, microbial control agents, antagonistic agents, genetically modified organisms, hormones, pheromones, kairomones and other agents of biological origin. - Category: Agriculture
  • Microarray Technology - Its Applications in Plant Breeding ( 4202 reads)   

    A DNA microarray (also commonly known as gene chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Each DNA spot contains picomoles (10−12 moles) of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters). These can be a short section of a gene or other DNA element that are used to hybridize a cDNA or cRNA sample (called target) under high-stringency conditions. Probe-target hybridization is usually detected and quantified by detection of fluorophore-, silver-, or chemiluminescence-labeled targets to determine relative abundance of nucleic acid sequences in the target. - Category: Agriculture
  • RNA Interference - A Revolution in Crop Plants ( 2422 reads)   

    RNA interference RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that inhibits gene expression at the stage of translation or by hindering the transcription of specific genes. RNAi targets include RNA from viruses and transposons (significant for some forms of innate immune response), and also plays a role in regulating development and genome maintenance. Small interfering RNA strands (siRNA) are key to the RNAi process, and have complementary nucleotide sequences to the targeted RNA strand. Specific RNAi pathway proteins are guided by the siRNA to the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA), where they 'cleave' the target, breaking it down into smaller portions that can no longer be translated into protein. A type of RNA transcribed from the genome itself, microRNA (miRNA), works in the same way. - Category: Agriculture
  • DNA Chips For Fasten the Crop Improvement ( 2207 reads)   

    It is widely believed that thousands of genes and their products (i.e., RNA and proteins) in a given living organism function in a complicated and orchestrated way that creates the mystery of life. However, traditional methods in molecular biology generally work on a 'one gene in one experiment' basis, which means that the throughput is very limited and the 'whole picture' of gene function is hard to obtain. - Category: Agriculture
  • Genetic Use Restriction Technology (GURT) in Crop Plants. ( 3485 reads)   

    In nature, the expression of genes is regulated by several factors, which may be internal to the organism (e.g. proteins or other molecules resulting from the metabolism of the organism itself) or external (e.g. climatic factors). Modern biotechnology can also be used to regulate the expression of genes that are, for instance, not desirable at a certain stage of crop development. Methods that regulate gene expression are called Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (GURTs)[1]. GURTs are a specific domestication of the regulation of gene expression that occurs naturally in any organism. - Category: Agriculture

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