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Author: Shivika Bhatnagar

No Photo Total Articles: 50 | Total Views: 294575 | Points Scored: 319,575

City: Ghaziabad | State: Uttar Pradesh

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Articles by Shivika Bhatnagar:
  • Risk Modeling ( 2308 reads)   

    The scientific technique used to detect the possible risks of GEOs is called risk modeling. It includes both laboratory and field techniques. The identification of possible risks of GEOs is the first step of risk modeling. We cannot know the risk suitable experiments are carried out under the laboratory conditions. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Risk Assessment For GEOs ( 2453 reads)   

    Possible Dangers of GEO: Environmentalists and medical professionals argue the deliberate release of GEOs in the nature. They say that, though beneficial today, GEOs will be a source of threat to the existence of man and animals on the earth. Hence scientists have decided to assess the possible risks, the GEO will produce before releasing the GEO. The process of assessing possible risks of GEOs is called risk assessment or risk evaluation. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Transgenic Virus Resistant Plants. ( 3932 reads)   

    Viral infection causes substantial plants and crop loss every year. It reduces the rate of photosynthesis and growth vigor. The net result is the low yield and income. Viral infection does not take place in plants already infected with certain viruses. The principle is called cross protection. By using this principle plant genetic engineers have been developing transgenic virus resistant plants. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Genetics of Nitrogen Fixing Microorganisms ( 3732 reads)   

    In Rhizobium species, nodulation genes together with other symbiotic genes, are located on large-plasmids (Sym plasmids). Sym plasmids vary from 50 to over 600 kb in R. leguminosarum bv. Trofoli to 1200 to 1500 kb in R. meliloti. Nodulation genes, nod and nol genes, are classified as regulatory, common and host specific. Regulation of nod genes is controlled by the nod gene, of which all rhizobia tested so far contain one or more copies. In conjunction with plant flavonoids or other phenolic compounds, nod proteins act as transcriptional activators of inducible nod genes. - Category: Genetics
  • Mycoherbicides: Weeds-killing Fungi ( 10254 reads)   

    Many fungi of native origin are pathogenic to specific species of weeds. Such fungi are used to kill the weeds selectively and eliminate them from the area. These weeds-killing fungi are called mycoherbicides. eg. [i]Phytopthora palmivora [/i]is used to control the weed [i]Morrenia odorata.[/i] - Category: Agriculture
  • Restriction Endonuclease: Molecular Scissor ( 4302 reads)   

    The nuclease enzyme that cuts the DNA at a unique sequence, is called restriction endonuclease.They cut the DNA in a non-terminal region. Restriction endonucleases are used to generate rejoinable DNA fragments. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Popular Enzymes used in Genetic Engineering ( 7220 reads)   

    A description of enzymes commonly used in the field of Genetic Engineering. Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that makes a DNA strand using mRNA that makes a DNA strand using mRNA as a template strand. Reverse Transcriptase is an enzyme that makes a DNA strand using mRNA that makes a DNA strand using mRNA as a template strand. Klenow enzyme is a product of enzymatic breakdown of DNA polymerase I from E. coli. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Genetic Engineering in Pharmaceuticals ( 3222 reads)   

    The cloned genes are utilized commercially in various fields such as pharmaceuticals, industry, agriculture, pollution control, medical science.The production of medically useful human peptides and proteins (e.g. human growth hormones, insulin, somatostanin and interferon) are of much importance. - Category: Biotech Research
  • DNA Tumour Viruses (Hepatitis B, Papilloma and Epstein-Barr Virus) ( 3088 reads)   

    The viruses that contain DNA as their genetic material and induce tumour are called DNA tumour viruses; for example, papova viruses (SV40, polyoma- and papilloma- viruses), adenoviruses herpes viruses, poxviruses and hepatitis B virus. SV40, polyoma and adenoviruses are the most widely studied viruses. - Category: Biology
  • Applications of Tissue Culture ( 7374 reads)   

    The in vitro culture of plant cells or tissues in artificial medium is said to be plant tissue culture. It has many applications in crop improvement, preservation, breeding and in industries. - Category: Others
  • Cryopreservation - Storing a Living Organism at Ultra-Low-Temperature ( 4380 reads)   

    what is Cryopreservation? The in vitro preservation of plant materials at -196 C for a long time using liquid nitrogen is called cryopreservation. Cell suspensions, hybrid protoplasts, pollen grains, seeds and meristem of desired plant races are stored in this medium. Cryoprotective agents are chemicals which protect plant materials from damaging effects of cold storage. - Category: Biology
  • Economic Importance of Azospirillum ( 5463 reads)   

    Azospirillum is a gram negative, symbiotic, vibrioid soil bacterium. It occurs in large numbers in association with roots of cereals, grasses and tuber crops. Azospirillum fixes about 20-40 kg of the atmospheric nitrogen under microaerobic conditions. And it increases the vegetative growth and crop yield in many plants. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Introduction to Water Microbiology ( 4287 reads)   

    A large number of microorganisms both saprophytes and pathogens are found in water which fall under the groups bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and nematodes. Several animal viruses are also transmitted through water. - Category: Biology
  • Azolla: A Green Manure ( 6199 reads)   

    Azolla is a free floating freshwater fern. The plant body consists of crowded mass-like leaves on a branched fragile stem and submerged roots.The leaves are arranged in two alternate rows. The leaf is triangular or polygonal in shape. It has an upper lobe called aerial lobe and a lower lobe called submerged lobe. The ventral surface of the aerial lobe bears mucilage cavities harbouring the blue green algae, Anabaena azollae. - Category: Agriculture
  • Biosyntheis of Cytokinin ( 3116 reads)   

    Cytokinins are degradation products of DNA. They are made up of adenine nucleus and a furfural ring. This basic structure is known as 6- furfuryl aminopurine. Cytokinins stimulate cell division and enlargement of cells. The deficiency of cytokinins results in stunted growth in plants. - Category: Agriculture
  • Classification and Enzymes - Uses and Production of Enzymes ( 3926 reads)   

    Enzymes are proteins which catalyse the biochemical reactions in living cells. Chemically they are globular proteins secreted by cells to regulate their metabolic activities. The enzymatic reactions are very specific, i.e. a particular enzyme catalyses only a particular biochemical reaction, but not others. - Category: Biology
  • Mushroom Ingredients and Advantages - The Edible Fungi ( 3041 reads)   

    Mushrooms are the fast growing basidiomycetous fungi which produce fleshy fruit bodies. However, in general the word 'mushrooms' denotes fruit bodies of such fungi. The mushrooms may be button- like or fan- like or umbrella shaped. They are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals. So they are consumed as energy rich food. - Category: Agriculture
  • Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery ( 2808 reads)   

    The process of getting more oil from oil wells by injecting suitable microbes or microbial products into the oil reservoir, is called microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR). It is also called tertiary oil recovery. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Biosensors: On-line Measurements and Continuous Operations ( 3017 reads)   

    Biosensors are suitable systems for on-line measurements and continuous operations. They are small in size, easy to work, quick in action, very sensitive to measure tiny amount of test molecules and relatively very cheap. So they are put into many practical uses in medicines, industries and environmental control. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Fungi as Single Cell Protein ( 5856 reads)   

    Dried biomass of certain fungi is consumed as a protein source in human food and animal feed. Such fungal biomass is termed fungal protein or mycoprotein. A few yeasts and moulds are being consumed as SCPs. - Category: Agriculture
  • Mutations: Suppression or Intergeneric Reversion ( 5048 reads)   

    If the mutational changes occur in a second gene, it eliminates or suppresses a mutant phenotype which is called suppression or intergeneric reversion. This type of suppression has been studied carefully with conditional mutation which develops wild type phenotypes on certain conditions and produces mutant phenotype in other conditions. The major class of this mutation is called suppressor sensitive mutation. - Category: Biology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction - Applications of the PCR Technology ( 3198 reads)   

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a simple and ingenuous method for exponentially amplification of specific DNA sequences by [i]in vitro[/i] DNA synthesis. This technique has made it possible to synthesize large quantities of a DNA fragment without cloning it. The PCR technique has now been automated and is carried out by a specially designed machine. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Microbial Taxonomy - Classification and Identification of Microorganisms ( 10796 reads)   

    Classification, nomenclature and identification comprise taxonomy of microorganisms. On the basis of common characters or properties, a set of organism is considered into groups. There are no formal rules to define the taxa. - Category: Biology
  • Medical and Agricultural Microbiology ( 3003 reads)   

    Microbes cause infections resulting in diseases among human and animals.Organic composting, increasing soil fertility, reclamation of alkaline user land and use of biofertilizer and microbial pesticides in agriculture are some of the important areas in which different groups of microorganisms participate. - Category: Biology
  • Microbes and Environment - Microbes in Biogeochemical Cycles ( 8421 reads)   

    Microbes are distributed everywhere i.e. soil, water and air even they are present deep in side the earth as deep sea vents. The microbes play an important role in recycling of biological elements such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. - Category: Biology
  • Autoradiography - Types of Radiations Used and Measuring Autoradiography ( 10643 reads)   

    The use of radioactive radiations to obtain the photographic film of the test material, incorporated with the radioactive tracers, is called autoradiography and the film obtained is called autoradiograph. After development the irradiated areas appear on the film as dark areas corresponding to the distribution of the tracer. - Category: Biology
  • Fermentation Process in Popular Oriental Foods ( 4886 reads)   

    Article explains the process of fermentation in common oriental foods like Tempeh, Soy sauce, Natto and Miso. Mycoproteins, marketed in some foreign countries under the name Quorn, is essentially the mycelium of Fusarium graminerarum grown in continuous culture in a medium containing glucose, ammonium salts and a few growth factors. It is essential to reduce the level of RNA which is about 10% on mycelial dry weight to below the levels likely to lead to kidney- stone formation or gout. This can be achieved by mild heating prior to filtration which activates the RNAses and leads to RNA reduction. Such products contains 44% of protein and is high in 'fiber' contents. - Category: Agriculture
  • Isolation of Pure Cultures of Microorganisms ( 7733 reads)   

    The process of screening a pure culture by separating one type of microbes from a mixture is called isolation. A culture containing only one species of microbe is called pure culture. In a mixed culture, a particular species is present in small numbers in comparision to the numbers of others. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Types of Centrifugation ( 36964 reads)   

    Centrifugation is based on centrifugal forces and the device is called Centrifuge. Basically, it has containers rotated around the central axis with the help of electric motor. Cooling centrifuges, high speed centrifuges and ultracentrifuges are available with the different types of rotors i.e. angle head and swinging bucket types. In the angle type rotor, the sample kept at an angle of about 30° to the horizontal whereas in the lat - Category: Biology
  • Phagocytosis: Defence Mechanism of Body ( 9246 reads)   

    The mechanism is related to the defense mechanism of body provided by white blood cells through phagocytosis. The phagocytes are of two types, granulocytes (microphages) and monocytes (macrophages). - Category: Biology
  • Symbiosis: A Beneficial Association | Symbiotic Association Examples ( 7637 reads)   

    Symbiosis is the phenomenon of living together where both the partners are benefited. The microsymbionts derive freshly prepared food from the host plant which lack in soil. The macrosymbionts get certain nutrients from microsymbiont which are not readily available such as trace elements, nitrogen, phosphorous, etc. As a result of interaction of microorganisms with plant roots there may or may not develop symbiotic structure. - Category: Biology
  • Types of Gene Mutations : Heritable Changes ( 5101 reads)   

    Mutation refers to any heritable change in nucleotide sequence of a gene of the organisms. A gene codes for a protein and so the physical and chemical properties of proteins are changed due to alteration in genes. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Allergy - Examples of Common Household Allergens ( 2935 reads)   

    Allergy is the altered capacity of body to react to a foreign substance. Allergy is caused by certain biological and abiological agents present in the atmosphere. The allergy causing agents present in air are called aeroallergens, and the allergy caused by them is called aeroallergy. Some of the prominent aeroallergens are house dusts, pollen grains, cosmetics, microbial spores or cells, etc. - Category: Healthcare
  • What are Viriods and Prions? ( 2970 reads)   

    Viriods are infectious agents smaller than viruses. Prions are different from both viruses and viriods. These are Proteinaceous infectious particles. - Category: Healthcare
  • Predaceous Fungi Types (Nematophagous Fungi) ( 7770 reads)   

    The predaceous fungi are also termed as Nematophagous fungi. They are of three main types on the basis of ecological habitat: a. Nematode trapping fungi, b. Endoparasitic fungi, c. egg parasites. - Category: Agriculture
  • Microbiological Biofertilizers - Mass Production and Phosphorous Nutrition ( 6520 reads)   

    Biological nitrofertilizers play a vital role to solve the problems of soil fertility, soil productivity and environmental quality. Anabaena azollae, is a cyanobacteria lives in symbiotic association with the free floating water fern Azolla. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Relationship of Microorganisms and Amino Acids ( 3263 reads)   

    Some enzymes acids have been produced in Japan by bacterial fermentation. Their biosynthesis is now possible by genetically manipulating and physiologically altering the microorganism. Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacteriumflavum are involved in the synthesis of L-lysine and L-theronine from a common intermediate, aspartic acid. The regulatory mutants of bacteria lysine in sufficient amount. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Production of Vitamins - Various Phases of Fermentation ( 8260 reads)   

    Liver extracts cure pernicious anaemia in human beings. Cyanocobalamine vitamin is present in a very small amount in every animal tissue including human blood but it is synthesized only by microorganisms.Riboflavin is also present in other foods (liver, heart, kidney, eggs) as flavoproteins which contains the prosthetic group FMN (flavin mononucleotide) or FAD (Flavin adenine dinucleotide). - Category: Biotech Research
  • Parasitism Mechanism - Entry and Growth of Pathogens ( 5248 reads)   

    Relationships of the parasites with their respective hosts are called parasitism. There are two important processes that play a significant role in parasitism, infection and intoxication. Infection refers to entry of a pathogen into host tissues after transmission, and its growth and reproduction resulting in disease. - Category: Biology
  • Understanding Mycotoxins | What are Aflatoxins? ( 3116 reads)   

    Mycotoxins are the toxic substances produced by the fungi on food materials. Aflatoxins are highly oxygenated heterocyclic compounds. Mycotoxins are 'secondary metabolites'. Some of these cause very severe effects on animal, plant and microbial systems. These include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, sterigmatocystin, citrinin, patulin, rubratoxin, zearalenone and trichothecens and are produced by the different species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. - Category: Toxicology
  • Heavy Metal Resistance of Microorganisms ( 5558 reads)   

    Most of the heavy metals such as cadmium, vanadium, manganese, lead, arsenic, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, chromium, copper, antimony etc. are toxic to biological systems, not only due to their inert nature but also due to their persistence and long run cumulative effects. The occurrence of Itai-itai disease due to cadmium, minamata disease due to arsenic are some of the examples of heavy metal pollution.Fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, algae etc. are the major microorganisms reported to tolerate heavy metals which universally occur in diverse ecosystems. - Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Interferon - A Protein Molecule ( 4110 reads)   

    Interferon is a protein molecule. It is produced by the cells when they are exposed to viral infection for the first time and protects the cells against the second viral infection. An interferon acts only in the same species in which it was produced. - Category: Biotech Research
  • A Nutshell on Vaccines - Types of Vaccines ( 3734 reads)   

    A suspension of killed or modified live virus or bacterium being injected in to the body to stimulate immunity against the pathogen, is called vaccine. The process of injecting a vaccine in to the body is known as vaccination. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Transplantation: Bone Marrow and Liver ( 2299 reads)   

    Bone Marrow is a soft tissue in the medullary cavities of bones. Immunodeficiency diseases are mainly concerned with the derivatives of marrow cells. So they can be cured by bone marrow transplantation. Ex vivo gene therapy using liver cells is called liver transplantation. Diseases such as familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperammonemia, etc. can be corrected by liver transplantation. - Category: Healthcare
  • A Brief Account of Tissue Culture ( 2661 reads)   

    Animal tissue culture is an important tool in modern biology. It has been put into many practical uses relating to human welfare.Organ culture refers to the rearing of an organ in vitro from an appropriate tissue. The whole organ cannot be grown in vitro as it is made up of different types of cells. The parts of the organ consisting of an identical cells can be made by tissue culture. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Bioremediation - Removal of Toxic Contaminants From the Environment ( 2811 reads)   

    What is Bioremediation? Use of the natural microbial populations in cleaning the toxic and hazardous contaminants in the environment is Bioremediation. Microbes act as catalysts to reduce the level of hazardness of toxic chemicals. It mainly covers the treatment of hazardous substances such as oil sludges in the soil and radioactive wastes in effluents. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Transgenic Animals Examples and Various Processes ( 4006 reads)   

    When the animals are genetically manipulated by introducing a gene, they are said to be transgenic animals or transgenics. The foreign gene which is inserted expresses its character in the animal and inherited for generation. These transformed animals - transgenics produce some valuable therapeutic proteins, more milk & represent fast growth. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Blue Green Algae - Bio Fertilizer ( 18526 reads)   

    Blue-green algae are photoautotrophic, prokaryotic algae. They are free living creatures and also known as Cyanobacteria. It fixes the atmospheric nitrogen in moist soils. So BGA has been recommended as a biofertilizer. - Category: Agriculture
  • DNA Fingerprinting - Biotechnological Process ( 4419 reads)   

    The technology that uses living organisms to produce and improve desired products or to manipulate the environment is Biotechnology. DNA fingerprinting is also known as DNA profiling or molecular fingerprinting. To identify the individuals according to their DNA printing pattern is DNA fingerprinting.It is used to get the information about the genetic relationship of an individual. - Category: Biotech Research
  • Gene Therapy Introduction and Vectors - Problems in Gene Therapy ( 3715 reads)   

    In gene therapy a normal gene is inserted into the genome to replace an abnormal disease-causing gene. A vector (carrier molecule) must be used to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient's target cells. The most common vector is a virus that has been genetically altered to carry normal human DNA. - Category: Biotech Research

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