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Author: Sandhya Anand

No Photo Total Articles: 68 | Total Views: 879099 | Points Scored: 913,099

City: Bangalore | State: Karnataka

About Me: I am a part time faculty in biotechnology and allied subjects.I am also a student wondering at the ways of nature.

Articles by Sandhya Anand:
  • Fate of a Drug After Administration ( 7911 reads)   

    A drug is any chemical substance that finds an entry into the system. There should be an enhancement or reduction of biological activity of these chemicals. Biotransformation reactions facilitates the process. - Category: Healthcare
  • Use of Mathematical Models in Biology ( 5046 reads)   

    A model tries to accurately represent the reality. It is a simpler approach to understanding the basic concepts about the real situation and facilitates interpretation of data based on the relations between individual variables of the system. - Category: Others
  • Microarray Data Analysis - Clustering Methods ( 3882 reads)   

    The most common approaches in clustering are Hierarchical clustering, K- Means clustering, Self Organizing Maps, Partitioning around Mediosis and Principle Component Analysis - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Microarray Data: To Cluster Or Not? | Purpose of Clustering ( 4514 reads)   

    Clustering is the most popular method in gene expression analysis methods. This is a kind of descriptive statistics in which data is explored to define the similarity (dissimilarity) between the objects. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Methods of Purification of Enzymes ( 60599 reads)   

    Enzymes are manufactured in bio reactors for commercial purposes and this has to be purified. The process of purification is often requires complex combination of processes which are detailed in the article. The choice of a suitable method depends on the nature of enzyme and desired purity level. - Category: Applications
  • Waste Water Treatment Steps: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Treatment ( 58413 reads)   

    Although water pollution has obtained the help of technology and governments to reduce its impacts, this is still a concern in the global scenario of increasing water scarcity. The treatment of waste water aims to make it less toxic and more ecofriendly and biodegradable. - Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Steps in Microarray Data Analysis - Part II ( 4509 reads)   

    Microarray data analysis requires numerous steps and data processing. There are complex statistical tests employed to find the significance of the research finding and these are detailed in this part. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Steps in Microarray Data Analysis - Part I ( 5801 reads)   

    Microarray data requires complex preprocessing and statistical tests. The individual steps are detailed to give an overview. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Phytoremediation - Greener Approach to Control Pollution ( 4953 reads)   

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate the sites where the contaminants are either metals or organic compounds. The process is efficient at sites with low to medium level of contaminants. - Category: Environmental Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Informatics - From Cells to Populations in the IT Way ( 3270 reads)   

    As the name implies, Biomedical informatics combines biology, medicine, IT software and informatics. The area is in its nascent stage with the services spanning health, pharma, medical and services industries. It acts as an interface between the biomedical sciences and information technology to address the technological needs of humans. - Category: Applications
  • Molecular Clocks in Evolutionary Time History ( 3885 reads)   

    The molecular clocks have been controversial ever since its inception. The focus of molecular evolution has now shifted from proving its existence to its applications in predictable evolutionary time history and analyzing the susceptible genes for mutations. - Category: Genetics
  • Genetic Drifts and Evolution ( 4764 reads)   

    Evolution is essentially the ability of the species to survive by getting adapted to its environment with changes in genes which are carried over to the next generation. The process of evolution thus involves variations in allele frequencies caused by natural selection, mutations, migrations and genetic drift. The process of genetic drift is the basis of molecular clocks. - Category: Genetics
  • Why and How of Normalization in Microarray Data Analysis ( 7312 reads)   

    Normalization is the process used in microarray data analysis to correct the measurement errors and bias introduced in acquisition of data. The data from microarray experiments are log normalized format since the log forms of data always follow a Gaussian distribution. The process therefore contributes more towards error correction. - Category: Bioinformatics
  • Quantitative Genetics and its Applications ( 6613 reads)   

    The basic principle of quantitative genetics is based on the identification and prediction of variations in quantitative traits. These variations are due to due to polygenic effects combined with effect of environmental factors. It forms the basis of many useful phenomenon such as heterosis and inbreeding and factors such as heritability. - Category: Genetics
  • Techniques of Gene Mapping ( 19040 reads)   

    Gene Mapping Techniques: Genetic maps are used to analyze the genome complexity, evolutionary relationship, pedigree, diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases. They are also useful in selective breeding of plants. The process can be achieved through different methods and the choice depends on the cost and purpose of the research. - Category: Genetics
  • Experimental Issues in Microarrays ( 4094 reads)   

    Microarray experiments involve huge data handling and extensive procedures. The issues associated with the microarray experiments therefore requires careful handling to get the best quality of data. The data quality is the primary concern since it affects the results and the overall analysis. - Category: DNA
  • Quorum Sensing- Communication Plan For Microbes ( 15575 reads)   

    Quorum sensing was discovered in bacterial species as a means of communication. The process has several promising applications in research including drug development and antibiotic production. - Category: Biology
  • Microarrays and Gene Expressions - Principle and Procedure ( 6266 reads)   

    Microarrays are the latest tools for DNA profiling used in differential gene expression studies, gene function identification studies, gene co-regulation studies, time- course studies, clinical diagnosis, dose-response studies, identification of biomarkers and many more. - Category: DNA

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